# Physics: Electricity, Circuits, and Electromagnetism

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Electric Charge (Q)

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## Tags and Description

### 66 Terms

1

Electric Charge (Q)

The property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electric field

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2

Coulombs (C)

unit of electric charge

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3

Current (I)

The rate of flow of charge.

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4

Amperes (A)

unit of current

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5

Voltage (V)

The potential difference between two points; the work done to move a unit charge between those points.

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6

Volts (V)

unit of voltage

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7

​voltage

what formula is this for

V = Q/W

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8

joule

one volt is equivalent to one ____ per coulomb.

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9

Resistance (R)

The opposition to the flow of electric current.

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10

Ohms (Ω)

unit of resistance

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11

resistance

what formula is this for

R = V/I

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12

Charge (Q)

The product of current (Ampere, A) and time

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13

charge

What formula is this for

Q = I × t

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14

Ohm's Law

The current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points, provided the temperature remains constant.

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15

Ohm's Law

what formula is this for

V = IR

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16

Electrical Power

The rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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17

Watts (W)

unit of electrical power

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18

electrical power

• Formulas:

• P = IV

• P = I²R

• P = V²/R

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19

energy transfer (Joule, J)

Formula: E = IVt

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20

power

The rate of energy transfer.

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21

Watts (W)

unit for power

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22

power

Formula: Energy transferred (J)/Time(s)

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23

series circuits

• Characteristics

• Current: Same through all components.

• Voltage: Sum of voltages across components equals total voltage.

• Resistance: Rₜₒₜₐₗ = R₁ + R₂ +…

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24

increased

If two resistors are in series, the net resistance is ________.

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25

parallel circuits

• Characteristics

• Current: Sum of currents through each path equals total current.

• Voltage: Same across each component.

• Resistance: 1/Rₜₒₜₐₗ = (1/R₁) + (1R₂) +...

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26

decreased

If two resistors are in parallel, the net resistance is ______

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27

battery

Provides electrical energy.

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28

resistor

Limits current flow

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29

ammeter

Measures current (connected in series).

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30

voltmeter

Measures voltage (connected in parallel).

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31

switch

opens and closes the circuit.

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32

closed circuit

A complete circuit where current can flow uninterrupted.

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33

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

Total current entering a junction equals the total current leaving.

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34

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

Total voltage around a closed loop equals zero.

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35

Filament Lamps

The resistance increases as the temperature of the filament increases.

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36

Diodes

Allow current to flow in one direction only, with very high resistance in the reverse direction

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37

Fixed Resistors

Have a constant resistance regardless of the voltage and current

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38

Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR)

Resistance decreases as light intensity increases.

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39

Thermistors

Resistance decreases as temperature increases.

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40

Magnetic Field Lines

Represent the direction and strength of the magnetic field. They flow from the north to the south pole of a magnet.

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41

Magnetic Flux (Φ)

The total magnetic field passing through a given area.

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42

#### Electromagnets

Magnets created by electric current flowing through coils of wire.

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43

#### Electromagnets

Applications: Used in motors, generators, transformers, and relays.

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44

#### Electromagnets

Construction: Typically a coil of wire (solenoid) with a ferromagnetic core.

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45

#### The Motor Effect

A current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force.

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46

Fleming's Left-Hand Rule

Used to determine the direction of force on a current-carrying conductor

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47

Thumb: Force (F)

First Finger: Magnetic Field (B)

Second Finger: Current (I)

Fleming's Left-Hand Rule:

• Thumb: ____

• First Finger: ______

• Second Finger: ______

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48

Fleming's Left-Hand Rule

Formula: F = BIL

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49

Induced voltage in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit.

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50

Lenz’s Law

The direction of the induced current opposes the change in magnetic flux.

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51

Induced Voltage

Formula: ____________ = −dΦ/dt

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52

#### Transformers

Devices that transfer electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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53

#### Transformers

Principle: Operates on AC; changing current in the primary coil induces a current in the secondary coil.

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54

100%

Ideal transformers assume _______ efficiency (no energy loss).

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55

Thermal Energy

Electrical energy is dissipated as __________ in the surroundings when an electric current does work against electrical resistance.

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56

Reducing Unwanted Energy Transfer

Use low resistance wires to minimize energy loss.

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57

#### Heating Effect of Current

• Advantages: Useful in devices like electric heaters and toasters.

• Disadvantages: Unwanted heating can damage components and reduce efficiency

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58

#### Energy Transfer

Equation: E = IVt

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59

#### Power

• Formula:

• Power(W) = Energy transferred (J) ​/ Time(s)

• P= IV

• P = I²R

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60

Direct Current (DC)

Charge flows in one direction; supplied by cells and batteries

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61

Alternating Current (AC)

Charge flow direction alternates; supplied by mains electricity

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62

Live Wire

Carries current to the appliance.

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63

Neutral Wire

Completes the circuit

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64

Earth Wire

Safety wire to prevent electric shocks

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65
• Live Wire

• Neutral Wire

• Earth Wire

WIRING TYPES

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66

Fuses and Circuit Breakers

Protect circuits from excessive current.

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