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1

Electric Charge (Q)

The property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electric field

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2

Coulombs (C)

unit of electric charge

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3

Current (I)

The rate of flow of charge.

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4

Amperes (A)

unit of current

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5

Voltage (V)

The potential difference between two points; the work done to move a unit charge between those points.

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6

Volts (V)

unit of voltage

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7

voltage

what formula is this for

V = Q/W

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8

joule

one volt is equivalent to one ____ per coulomb.

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9

Resistance (R)

The opposition to the flow of electric current.

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10

Ohms (Ω)

unit of resistance

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11

resistance

what formula is this for

R = V/I

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12

Charge (Q)

The product of current (Ampere, A) and time

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13

charge

What formula is this for

Q = I × t

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14

Ohm's Law

The current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points, provided the temperature remains constant.

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15

Ohm's Law

what formula is this for

V = IR

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16

Electrical Power

The rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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17

Watts (W)

unit of electrical power

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18

electrical power

**Formulas**:*P = IV**P = I²R**P = V²/R*

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19

energy transfer (Joule, J)

**Formula**:* E = IVt*

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20

power

The rate of energy transfer.

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21

Watts (W)

unit for power

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22

power

**Formula**:** Energy transferred (J)/Time(s)**

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23

series circuits

**Characteristics****Current: Same through all components.****Voltage: Sum of voltages across components equals total voltage.****Resistance:***Rₜₒₜₐₗ = R₁ + R₂ +…*

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24

**increased**

**If two resistors are in series, the net resistance is ________.**

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25

parallel circuits

**Characteristics****Current: Sum of currents through each path equals total current.****Voltage: Same across each component.****Resistance:***1/Rₜₒₜₐₗ = (1/R₁) + (1R₂) +...*

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26

**decreased**

**If two resistors are in parallel, the net resistance is ______**

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27

battery

Provides electrical energy.

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28

resistor

Limits current flow

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29

ammeter

Measures current (connected in series).

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30

voltmeter

Measures voltage (connected in parallel).

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31

switch

opens and closes the circuit.

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32

closed circuit

A complete circuit where current can flow uninterrupted.

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33

**Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)**

Total current entering a junction equals the total current leaving.

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34

**Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)**

Total voltage around a closed loop equals zero.

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35

**Filament Lamps**

The resistance increases as the temperature of the filament increases.

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36

**Diodes**

Allow current to flow in one direction only, with very high resistance in the reverse direction

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37

**Fixed Resistors**

Have a constant resistance regardless of the voltage and current

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38

**Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR)**

Resistance decreases as light intensity increases.

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39

**Thermistors**

Resistance decreases as temperature increases.

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40

**Magnetic Field Lines**

Represent the direction and strength of the magnetic field. They flow from the north to the south pole of a magnet.

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41

**Magnetic Flux (Φ)**

The total magnetic field passing through a given area.

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42**Electromagnets**

Magnets created by electric current flowing through coils of wire.

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43**Electromagnets**

**Applications**: Used in motors, generators, transformers, and relays.

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44**Electromagnets**

**Construction**: Typically a coil of wire (solenoid) with a ferromagnetic core.

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45**The Motor Effect**

A current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force.

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46

**Fleming's Left-Hand Rule**

Used to determine the direction of force on a current-carrying conductor

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47

**Thumb**: Force (F)

**First Finger**: Magnetic Field (B)

**Second Finger**: Current (I)

**Fleming's Left-Hand Rule**:

**Thumb**: ____**First Finger**: ______**Second Finger**: ______

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48

**Fleming's Left-Hand Rule**

**Formula**: *F = BIL*

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49

**Faraday’s Law**

Induced voltage in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit.

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50

**Lenz’s Law**

The direction of the induced current opposes the change in magnetic flux.

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51

*Induced Voltage*

**Formula**: *____________ = −dΦ/dt*

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52**Transformers**

Devices that transfer electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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53**Transformers**

**Principle**: Operates on AC; changing current in the primary coil induces a current in the secondary coil.

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54

100%

Ideal transformers assume _______ efficiency (no energy loss).

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55

**Thermal Energy**

Electrical energy is dissipated as __________ in the surroundings when an electric current does work against electrical resistance.

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56

**Reducing Unwanted Energy Transfer**

Use low resistance wires to minimize energy loss.

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57**Heating Effect of Current**

**Advantages**: Useful in devices like electric heaters and toasters.**Disadvantages**: Unwanted heating can damage components and reduce efficiency

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58**Energy Transfer**

**Equation**: *E = IVt*

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59**Power**

**Formula**:*Power(W) = Energy transferred (J) / Time(s)**P= IV**P = I²R*

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60

**Direct Current (DC)**

Charge flows in one direction; supplied by cells and batteries

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61

**Alternating Current (AC)**

Charge flow direction alternates; supplied by mains electricity

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62

**Live Wire**

Carries current to the appliance.

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63

**Neutral Wire**

Completes the circuit

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64

**Earth Wire**

Safety wire to prevent electric shocks

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65

**Live Wire****Neutral Wire****Earth Wire**

WIRING TYPES

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66

**Fuses and Circuit Breakers**

Protect circuits from excessive current.

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