Uark Dance Appreciation Unit III

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Cindy Garcia - "Don't Leave Me Celia!"

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Cindy Garcia - "Don't Leave Me Celia!"

-This article theorizes pan-latinidad in action and the classed, racialized codes of femininity that emerge in Los Angeles salsa clubs. Through choreography-based ethnographic analyses, the author reflects on the conditions and possibilities of salsera homosociality-not on the dance floor, but in decentralized spaces such as the bar, the bathroom and cyberspace -you can perform the "wrong" kind of Latina-ness in Los Angeles night clubs by not following Gender codes (men ask women to dance), by being too basic (you should be dissociating from laboring body)

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Ramon Rivera Servera - "Dancing Reggaeton with Cowboy Boots"

-Compared Club Zarape to Club Karamba

  • Both: queer spaces, Meant for working class, First generation Mexican immigrants -Club Zarape: More traditional, Conservative, Partnered, Nothing flashy -Club Karambe: Name from gay club in Cancun, Very bold/ exoticism, Pan lantinidad, Buying into Latin sexiness, Pop hip hop, swanky

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Melissa Blanco Borelli - "A Taste of Honey"

-examines the filmic representations of the mulatta body in the films Sparkle (1976), Flashdance (1983) and Honey (2003). More specifically, this article seeks to unravel how the Hollywood filmic apparatus engages with signifiers of raced sexuality and hierarchies of dance styles to enforce and reify mythic narratives about dance, dancing raced bodies and dance-making -illustrate how the mulatta subject develops from a tragic figure (in Sparkle) to an independent and self-reliant one (in Honey) -the mulatta body is hyper sexualized- framed in terms of pleasure and desire -tragic mulatta- violent union between two races forced to straddle two worlds

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Juliet McMains - "Brownface"

  • She draws parallels between painting light skin darker for these competitions and blackface minstrelsy. Painting the skin darker than it naturally is implies that you are "performing" Latin-ness. This is primarily done in the Latin dances, because there's the most skin exposed. -there is no DanceSport in Latin America, so the idea of performing Latin dances is just misleading. These dances bear very little resemblance to social dancing in Latin America -The problem is when the American dance industry becomes the superior authority on what is Latin dance.

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Tria Wakpa - "Culture Creators and Interconnected Individualism"

Culture Creators: Dynamic work, building upon past cultural knowledge- similar to quote of rosy Simas -Recognize that indigenous individuals have relationships ties to their indigenous communities and continue to protect and perform these practices -Present and past Settler Colonialism: Based on Eurocentric ideologies, meaning European settlers assume their values and way of life are superior -Erasure of indigenous identity and presence Interconnected Individual: respect and connection/ intermingling of all domains of life -Understand the importance of individual groups as well as nurturing the relationship between them -Underscores the group and individual without collapsing one into the other

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Yutian Wong - "Introduction: Choreographing Asian American"

-Discusses experience with Club O'noodles -key terms: -Aesthetic Multiculturalism (pg 8): Sometimes too busy celebrating other cultures in dance, when sometimes there is more to it -Representation (pg 11): Bringing the then into the now; Recreating something from the past, but anxiety around the idea that it will never be the same -Model Minority: Properly behaved minatory -Political passivity: Properly behaved minority does not have to be politically active -Orientalism: Fanaticized/sexualized other of the east represented through the eyes of the west

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Sansan Kwan - "Performing a Geography of Asian American"

-Talks about the chop suey circuit: troubled black/white binary, but reinforced citizen/ foreigner binary -The Chop Suey Circuit describes Asian American cabaret performers who toured the US from the 1930s through the '50s. -Performing the era's popular songs and dances, these "Orientals" were novel yet familiar, exotic yet accessible. At a time of war, internment, and segregation they simultaneously solidified and challenged racial cartographies that would emplace race. -The Chop Suey Circuit suggests the ways that the raced, per forming body, onstage and on tour, carried the capacity both to reproduce boundaries of otherness, while also disrupting the logic of segregation. The presence of Asian American bodies performing typically white forms (appropriated from black and Latin forms) throughout the black-white spaces of the Jim Crow South, and of Japanese Americans dancing and singing exuberantly beyond the barbed wire of the internment camps, reveal how performing bodies can challenge existing racial cartographies.

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Lucy Burns - "Splendid Dancing"

-Key Terms: -Archival embodiment: Like between immigration , foreign policy, social institutions, and Filipino corporeal colonization. The corpus of Filipino American history, records, choreographed by and onto the Filipino body. Representing history and culture on the body. These Filipinos are embodying what it means to be Filipino -Geopolitics of dance halls: Politics of taking up space, who is allowed to own houses in this area and so on and so forth. The idea of mobility- who can be where and why Has to do with the fear of Filipinos taking jobs- regulation of Filipinos -Corporeal colonization: Corporeal- physical body. Being almost too good at whiteness. Idea is that Filipinos are too good at American dance it was a form- erasing their own culture and taking on mainstream culture -What to make of Burn's assertion about resistance: Too romanticized. They aren't actually resisting or celebrating their culture in defianceBut they can have fun, they can be colonized but still have fun dancing. They were being absorbed as colonial subject but still having fun

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Cesar Chavez

-Mexican American labor rights activist -Coined the term Chicano -Modeled non violent protests of MLK and Ghandi and work of St. Francis -Head of United Farm Workers Union -Awarded Medal of freedom

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Carmen Miranda

-a Portuguese Brazilian samba singer/bombshell, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was popular from the 1930s to the 1950s. Thought to be too Americanized -"Chiquita Banana Girl"

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Rita Moreno

-This Puerto Rican actress, dancer and singer -won an Academy Award for her 1961 portrayal of Anita in West Side Story. -also won Tony and an Emmy -stereotyped as Latina sexpot throughout career (often cast as the "exotic")

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Jennifer Lopez

-puertorriqueno, dancer, actor, singer from the bronx -was selena in movie -Media's obsession with Latina curvy, sexy body -Urban + multicultural- capitalizes on self-commodification of racial ambiguity

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Patrick Makuakane

-contemporary hula choreographer from san Francisco -relationship to your environment -coined Hula Mula- hula that evolves

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Jack Gray

-choreographer for Antamira Dance collective- taught Maori

  • "based in Aotearoa New Zeeland, a remote and wild landscape where indigenous Maori stories are powerful voice in the art locally, and increasingly, internationally"

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Daystar/ Rosalie Jones

-Blackfeet reservation -Mother of native modern dance -Daystar: contemporary dance- Drama of Indian American- "native Modern Dance" combination of intertribal and modern dance forms

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Rosy Simas

-Dancer of Seneca Nation -Transdisciplinary artist- lots of different mediums -Work weaves themes of personal and collective identity with family, sovereignty, and equality, and gealing- driven by movement- vocabularies developed through deep listening. -Work watched in class- We Wait in the Darkness

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Rulan Tangen

-Dancing Earth is her company created in 2004- based in San Francisco, CA and Santa Fe, NM -tedX talk

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Anne Pesata

-Basket weaving Dance -The dance, like the basket, narrates a story of intergenerational resilience and survival -reviewed by Tria Wakpa

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Lenora Lee

-Asian-American Choreographer based in an Francisco -Dace company's mission : to create los of multimedia work -"within these Walls" (interactive dance experience at angel island immigration station)(2017) & "Dreams of Flight" (2019) -Sight of remembrance of Chinese Exclusion Act

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Salsa

-Roots in 1960s, Cubans and Puerto Ricans living in NYC (Music: Cuban mambo & son, Puerto Rican Plena + Latin Jazz) -Many connotations: Mixing of new cultures in the new world, Combining of rhythm timing, Connecting to partner, Requires passion

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Clave

-Afro-Cuban instrument -2 sticks struck together to provide percussion

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Reggaeton

-Combination of rap and reggae with Spanish language lyrics and Caribbean aesthetics -Famous artists: Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, Tego Calderón, and Ivy Queen -Developed in Puerto Rico in the 1990s -Despacito- daddy Yankee with Justin Bieber -Calle 13- (music video from class) -Dancing similar to salsa

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West Side Story

-modern urban Romeo and Juliet which has Puerto Rican representation

  • one of the first to present serious issues in musicals -by Laurents, Leonard, and Sondheim -choreo by Jerome Robbins -has stereotypes of men as gang members (criminal) and women as sassy and virginal (victims) -issues surrounding Natalie Wood beaus she's not actually Puerto Rican

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Rumba

-Latin Division ballroom dance -"passionate" -Cuba, mid 19th century, primarily black neighborhoods -Male Bravado (vacuani gesture-pelvic thrust) and female demureness (botao gesture) -Popular style: hip isolations. Rhythmic improv, freedom of torso

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Cha-Cha

-Latin Division ballroom dance -"flirtatious" -Three quick steps, 2 slow steps -Nonprogressive, staccato movements -Cubin origins-originating from Danzon and Montuno 1950s derivative of Mambo -Enrique Jorrin- Cubin musical innovation -Composer that helped lead to this dance form -Pierre Lavelle- British Ballroom Cha-Cha

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Samba

-Latin Division ballroom dance -"playful" -Afro-Brazilian, popularized in US and Europe in 1940s -Maxixe (European ballroom) and candomblé (Afro-Brazilian religion) -Popular Form: Polyrhythm and Roda -Forward, backward step, with syncopation -Brazil Carnival Festival

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Paso Doble

-Latin Division ballroom dance -"aggressive" -Means "double-step" -Originated in France in 16th century, popularized in Spain and Portugal -Music played during bullfight -Alternates between 2 flamenco gypsy dancers or bullfighter/cape

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Jive

-Latin Division ballroom dance -"Exuberant" -African-American Swing dance -Based off Lindy Hop and Jitterbug -Non-progressive -American GIs popularized in Europe -Very fast dance, sharp, with kicks and flicks

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Tango

-standard ballroom dance -"to touch" -2/4 beats -Argentinian origins in 1880s (Bueno Aires- heyday in the 1920s)- possible influences include Spanish flamenco/tango, Argentinian milonga, and Cuban habanera -Not considered Latin division because had popularity in Europe In early 1900s then to the Sates

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Hula

-Indigenous Hawaiian dance form associated with native chants, later accompanied by Western instruments for tourists. -Sacred practice: Hula pahu, Goddess Laka, mele

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Hula Auana

Contemporary/modern hula

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Hula Kahiko

ancient hula

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Hula Mua

"hula that evolves"

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Merrie Monarch Festival

-Honors King David Kalakaua -Big competition that represents Hawaiian culture through education and performance of hula

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The Haka

-Maori war dance -performed by all Blacks Rugby Team

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Ami

-term from hula class -means rotation of the hips

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We Wait in the Darkness

-work by Rosy Simas with projections portraying indigenous peoples -dance expresses pain which travels through ancestors

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Dancing Earth

-based in San Francisco, CA and Santa Fe, NM -company created by Rulan Tangen

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Club O'Noodles

-First Vietnamese American Performance Ensemble establish in US -Founders: Hung Nguyen and Tram Le -Location: Los Angeles -All about laughter -Dealing with discrimination, shame guilt awkwardness, etc.

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Miss Saigon

-Adaptation of Puccini's opera "Madame Butterfly." Tells of the doomed romance between an Asian woman and American GI in 70s during Vietnam war. -The actor was using "yellow face" make up for the play in order for a white dude to look asian -One of the longest running Broadway show in history Created by Claude-Michel Schonberg & Alain Boublil

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Flower Drum Song

-"Chopsticks musical" -Rodgers and Hammerstein -1st to concentrate on Asian Americans -Made in to a film in 1961 -Nominated for 6 Tony's -Domestic v. International realities of Cold War era -Perpetuates myth of model minority paired with Ghettoization

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Forbidden City

-part of chop suey circuit -Chinese nightclub and cabaret in San Francisco -one of the first nightlife venues to feature Asian American singers, dancers, chorus lines, magicians, strippers, and musicians, and was entirely managed and staffed by Asian Americans -inspiration for "flower drum song"

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The King and I

-"Chopsticks" musical -Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein -Anna Leonowens, a British schoolteacher, travels to Siam (now Thailand) to teach English to the King's many children and wives. -Adapted from Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon

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South Pacific

-"chopsticks" musical -Rodgers and Hammerstein -During the Pacific Theater of World War II, Nellie Forbush, a U.S. Navy nurse, has fallen in love with Emile, a French plantation owner. Emile helps Lt. Cable carry out an espionage mission against the Japanese.

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Taxi Halls

-Social dancing, where you pay to dance with a dancer in a hall in Filipino culture

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Latinidad/Latinx

-Spanish-language term that refers to the various attributes shred by Latin American people and their descendants -an umbrella -politically advantageous -in Hollywood casted by accent, class, and cultural markers as opposed to physical appearance -they are only villains, sidekicks or temporary lovers

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Hispanic

Someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish speaking country other than Spain.

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Chicano/a

-term coined by Cesar Chavez -An American of Mexican origin or descent

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Machismo

-an emphasis on male strength and dominance -A sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one's maleness. -sexually aggressive

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Marianismo

-a set of values based on the life of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus, that defines the proper social roles for women in Middle and South America -women should be pure

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-Puerto Rico was ceded to the U.S. by the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Rico is not a state, but rather a U.S. territory with commonwealth status. Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917. -today, Puerto Rico has a declining population - 3.4 million (2016 consensus) -58% below poverty line (2015) 56% Catholic -2015 debt crisis -Typically characterize as diverse racial democracy (1/3 Hispanic, 1/3 indigenous, 1/3 black) -Treated like a 3rd world country -Puerto ricans and Cubans living in NYC began salsa in 1960s

Describe Puerto Rico's relationship to the U.S.

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-the latin lover -bandito; gangbanger -cholo -harlot -spitfire; feisty latina -the maid

What are some Latinx stereotypes in Hollywood

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Mulatto/a

-Spanish/Portuguese term for mixed race of African and European descent

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Mestizo

-The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed native American and European descent.

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-established by Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning relations with central and South Africa -emphasized cooperation and trade rather than military intervention -began US mainstream interest in Latino/a performance and performers -1940s Good Neighbor Films: Several films visited Latin American countries such as Cuba, Argentina or Brazil to showcase these countries and strengthen United States relations with Latin American government. -Desi Armaz and Carmen Miranda stars at this time

What is the Good Neighbor Policy

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History: -1820, 1st missionaries -1893, illegal overthrow -1898, Hawaii annexed -1900, US territory -1920, sugar and pineapple industry, + tourism -1959, Hawaii is 50th US state -The U.S. was interested in Hawaii because they had natural sugar and the U.S. wanted to make plantations off of that sugar that was in Hawaii. -Also the island could be used as a way station for shippers, sailors, and whalers trading with Asian nations. -Treaty of Reciprocity:This treaty states that the U.S. can import agricultural products to Hawaii free of tax. Indirectly, Hawaii could import goods to the U.S. free of Tax as well. This is significant because it strengthened both of the country's economies and the relationship between the two.

Describe Hawaii's relationship to the U.S.

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Kanaka Maoli

The "real" or "true people" of Hawaii, that is the Native Hawaiians.

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Kumu Hula

hula teacher

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Hapa-haole

half white half Hawaiian

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Imagined Intimacy

Hula circuit created fantasy of reciprocal attachment; territory familiar AND exotic

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Imperialist Nostalgia

-a mood of nostalgia that makes racial domination appear innocent and pure; people mourning the passing or transformation of what they have caused to be transformed.

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myth of the model minority

-the mistaken belief that all Asian Americans are more academically, economically, and socially successful than other racial minority groups, and that this success is the result of their supposedly uniquely Asian cultural values -the idea that a minority group must adopt alleged dominant group values to succeed

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-Yellow face -Coolie: Derogatory term, Workers/blue collar -Dragon Lady: Asian woman body is sexually available -Fu Manchu style Villain: Based off British silent film caricatures

What are some Asian-American Performance stereotypes

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-First Wave- Fall of Saigon: After the fall of Saigon, many South Vietnamese fled fearing reprisal from the new Communist government. -Many abandoned their homes and sought asylum and refugee status in the United States and other Western nations. -Indochina Migration and Refugee act of 1975: The United States made provisions to admit about 135,000 Vietnamese and other Southeast Asians in the months following the fall of Saigon, resettle them across the United States with some resources to help them establish new lives. -Second wave- 2 million fled communist re-educated camps and invasion of Vietnam by China -First Geneva conference on Indochina Refugees

  • 1975-2002: 759,482 Vietnamese refugees to US

  • Low skilled immigrants- pronounced impact on nail care and commercial fishing and shrimping industries

What was the Vietnamese Refugee Crisis

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Aestheticized Multiculturalism

-Sometimes too busy celebrating other cultures in dance, when sometimes there is more to it

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-1882 law that Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. -First major law in the US restricting immigration -Extended by Geary act in 1892 & became permanent in 1902 -National Origins Act of 1929- Capped overall immigration at 150,000 per year and barred Asian Immigration -Repealed by Magnuson Act in 1943

What was the Chinese Exclusion Act?

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-Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor in dec. 7 of 1941 -Feb. 1942, president Roosevelt issues executive order 9006: Relocated all persons of Japanese ancestry, including citizens, outside of pacific military zone; Poor living conditions in concentration camps; Affected 117,000 people -442d regimental Combat Team (1943-44): a segregated Japanese American unit, is remembered today for its brave actions in World War II. Despite the odds, the 442nd's actions distinguished them as the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of the US military. -Public Law 100-383 in 1988: Apology and grant

Describe the concept of Japanese Internment during WWII

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Chinatown

-A section of an urban area with a large Chinese population.

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-Alludes to Vaudeville circuit and Chop Suey dish -Chinese restaurants and nightclubs in the 1930s and 40s presenting "all-Chinese" variety acts to white audiences -Billed as Chinese but performers were actually Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Filipino -Famous Acts: Chinese Frank Sinatra (Larry Ching), the Chinese Sophie Tucker (Toy Yat Mar), and the Chinese Fred Astaire and Ginger (Paul Wing and Dorothy Toy) -Forbidden City in San Francisco/ China Doll in NYC

What is the Chop Suey Circuit?

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-The Philippines is a treaty ally and an important security partner. Bilateral defense agreements continue to provide the foundation for the defense relationship and enable critical U.S. military support, presence, and interoperability. -History: -The Philippine Revolution (1896-98) concluded with the treaty of Paris after Spanish-American War -Philippine-American War (1899-1902) -Filipino American Immigration began -1st wave- US annexation of Philippines (1899) -Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)- Philippine independence + immigrant status -2nd wave- post WWII -3rd wave- (1965)- Immigration and Nationality Act removed national system: it abolished an earlier quota system based on national origin and established a new immigration policy based on reuniting immigrant families and attracting skilled labor to the United States. -45% live in California

Describe Phillipines relationship to the U.S.

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PCN- Pilipino cultural nights

-Annual Performing Arts Showcase at American high schools and colleges (Began in 1970s) -Filipinx-American peoples connect with Filipinos identity and cultural as first and second generation students -Filipinx cultural dances + hip hop/ swing dance

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Little Manila

-was home to the largest community of Filipinas/os outside of the Philippines -in california

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Archival Embodiment

-Like between immigration , foreign policy, social institutions, and Filipino corporeal colonization -The corpus of Filipino American history, records, choreographed by and onto the Filipino body -Representing history and culture on the body -These Filipinos are embodying what it means to be Filipino

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Corporeal colonization

-Corporeal- physical body -Being almost too good at whiteness -Idea is that Filipinos are too good at American dance it was a form- erasing their own culture and taking on mainstream culture

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