Exam 1

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Where is the longest railway in the world, and what is it called?

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1

Where is the longest railway in the world, and what is it called?

Russia; Trans-Siberian Railway

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2

Who is Russia's current leader?

Vladimir Putin

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3

Who wrote the Igor Tale?

Author unknown

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4

Who and when was Prince Igor of Novgorod fighting? Was it successful?

The Polovtsian/Kumans in 1185. It was not succesful.

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5

What was the arguments revolving around the Igor Tale?

It has been called a forgery; now thought to be genuine from 12th century.

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6

Characters of the Igor Tale: Who was the main character?

Prince Igor

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7

Characters of the Igor Tale: What was the name of Igor's brother?

Prince Vsevold

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8

Waht do the princes' embody?

Princely virtues: manly, military honor, desire to "drink from Don w/helmet."

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9

Characters of the Igor Tale: Who is Igor's wife? And what was her part in the story called?

Yaroslavna; Yaroslavna's Lament

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10

What does Igor's wife, Yaroslavna embody?

Peace, family ties, love

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11

What famous epic does this story resemble?

Homer's Iliad

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12

How were folkloric motifs represented in the Igor's tale?

Yaroslavna's appeal to nature -- wind, river, sun

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13

What is pathetic fallacy?

nature corresponds to events

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14

What is the patriotic idea shown through Igor's Tale?

Epic portryal of Russian land and people

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15

Who wrote the opera version of "Prince Igor"?

Alexander Borodin

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16

When was the opera "Prince Igor" first performed?

St. Petersburg, Russia in 1890

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17

Who were invited to rule Russia?

The Varangians; Riurik 862

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18

What area were ruled in the Riurik dynasty?

Novgorod and then Kievan Rus'

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19

Who was Riurik's son?

Igor

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20

What happened when Igor was a child?

Riurik dies and Oleg, a relative, governs for Igor

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21

Who does Igor end up marrying?

Olga

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22

Who is Olga and Igor's child? And who was their respective child?

Sviatoslav who then has a son named Vladimir

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23

Why is Vladimir so important in Russian history?

Vladimir christianizes Russia in 988

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24

How did Keivan Rus' came to be?

In 882 Oleg captures Kiev for Igor. Under Sviatosolav, the empire spreads, and the dominant city is Kiev. This become Kievan Rus'.

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25

When was the Schism and what was it?

1054; Western, catholic church and eastern orthodox church split

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26

Where does Russian Christianity come from?

Eastern Church

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27

Who were the Greek monks that bring religion and ALPHABET to Russian?

Cyril and Methodius

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28

What is the Russian alphabet called?

Cyrillic

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29

What make up current RUSSIAN?

Church Slavonic language merges with old Russian

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30

Time Period of Kievan Rus'? What was the condition of the empire?

A flourish empire from 900s-1200s

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31

Who did Kevan Rus' trade with?

Europe

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32

What relationship was established between Keivan Rus' and Europe and other coutnries?

  • Prince Yaroslav the Wise's daughter Anna married King Henry of France

  • Other daughters marry King of Norway and King of Hungary

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33

What religious art was created during the Kievan Rus'?

Icons

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34

What literature was around Kievan Rus' period and who wrote?

Monks worte literature. It was not fiction, and it was about saints' lives, history, and chronicles.

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35

What is the famous Monastery during Kievan Rus' and when was it founded?

Kiev-Caves (Kievo-Pecherskaya); founded 11th century

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36

What Famous cathedral did Yaroslav the Wise build in 11th century?

Cathedral of St. Sophia

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37

What invasion completely changed Russian during Kievan Rus'?

The Mongol/Tatar invasion and yoke in 1237

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38

How long did the mongols rule?

Two centuries 1100s - 1380

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39

What is the primary chronicle and who wrote it?

A book though to be written by monk Nestor, Kiev Monastery of the Caves

  • Heterogeneous: many types of literature

  • Included chronicles, annals

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40

Time period of primary chornicle?

Begun 1040 until 1118

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41

What types of literature that we read in class are included in the primary chronicle?

Tale of Olga's revenge and Saints' lives.

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42

What was Olga's first act of revenge?

Her people carried the Derevlians on a boat to the ditch, and she ordered to bury them alive.

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43

What did Olga do after the ditch incident?

She asked for the Derevlians to send their most distinguished men, ordered a bath, and once they entered the bathhouse, her men locked the doors and she ordered to set it on fire.

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44

What was the third act in Olga's revenge?

Said she was coming and asked to prepare great quantities of mead where Igor was killed, so she could grieve and host a funeral feast. They asked where the retinue sent to her were, she said they were following with her husband's bodyguard, the Derevlians got drunk, and she egged her retinue to the massacre of the Derevlians.

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45

What did Olga finally do?

When the Derevlians asked what she wants, she asked for three pigeons and three sparrows from each house. Her soliders attached a sulfur bound with cloth to each bird, and set it on fire. They flew to the Derevlians and all the houses got on fire. People fled, and her soliders caught them. Some captives she killed, and some became slaves to her followers.

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46

What was the tribute she imposed of the Derevlians?

Two parts went to Kiev, third to Olga in Vyshgorod, since it was her city. She finally returned home in Kiev with her son after establishing laws and tribute.

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47

How did Olga outwit Emperor Constantine in Byzantium, Greece?

He wanted her reign with him, Olga reminded him she was pagan and he should baptize her himself, and he did this with assistance of patriarch. When he let her know he wanted to marry her, she reminded him that he baptized her and called her his daughter, and it is unlawful to marry your daughter among christians.

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48

What is hagiography?

Writing of the lives of saints

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49

Who were Boris and Gleb?

Brothers and sons of Vladimir, son of Sviatoslav and grandson of Igor who spread christianity.

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50

Summary of Vladimir's sons

  • Vysheslav, the eldest

  • Third, Sviatopolk (killed boris and gleb)

  • With a Bulgarian woman, he had Boris and Gleb

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51

What did Vladimir do in terms of lands?

He placed all his sons in different lands as rulers.

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52

Was Sviatopolk Vladimir's actual son?

No, Vladimir's brother unfrocked a greek nun because of her beauty, and Vladimir who was still a pagan, killed his brother, and took the pregnant wife.

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53

What is notable in Boris's death making him a saint?

Boris accepts his fight, does not fight, but accepts death as god's will. This acceptance makes him holy and saint-like.

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54

What is Martyrdom and its concepts?

  • Boris and Gleb don't technically die for their faith

  • they are seen as "passion-bearers" for imitating suffering of christ and accepting death willingly

  • Seen as first saints of Russian Chruch

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55

What is Kenosis

Christian theological term: self-emptying, renunciation of self, in christian love and humility

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56

What was the time period of the Grand Princes of Kiev?

862-1054

<p>862-1054</p>
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57

What is another name for the primary chronicle?

Tale of Bygone Years

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58

What are chronicles?

  • “Carriers of texts”

  • scrapbooking but make it medieval style

  • Organization is year by year but outside texts can be included

    • great historical source with caution (biases and political agendas)

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59

What were the slavic tribes in the 7th - 9th century time period?

West slavic, east slavic, and south slavic

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60

How long do Rurik’s descendant rule and where?

Until 1598; first in Kiev, then Moscow

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61

Vladimir’s religious journey

  • erects pagan idols, and people sacrificed their sons and daughters to them

    • Prince Vladimir investigates other religions and adopts Christianity in 988

    • Mass baptism of people of Kievan Rus

  • Overthrows said idols

  • Dies 1015

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62

When was Russia Christianized?

988 by Prince Vladimir

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63

How is Russian Orthodox church set up?

  • Much of service is chanted

  • No instruments except bells

  • Worshippers stand

  • Icon stand/wall of icons = iconostasis (often has doors for clergy)

    • This separates altar from worshippers

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64

when did Icons first come to Russia?

  • Came from Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire, seat of Eastern Orthodox Church

    • 1100s-1500s = famous periods of Russian icon-painting

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65
<p>What was this Early Kievan Period Icon-Painting?</p>

What was this Early Kievan Period Icon-Painting?

  • “Our Lady of Vladimir” - 1120

    • very few from this time period

    • Painted in Constantinople, taken to Russia, then Kremlin

      • Symbolic in Russia, deeply venerated and evacuated from Moscow during 1812 war with Napoleon

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66
<p>What was this Early Kievan Period Icon-Painting?</p>

What was this Early Kievan Period Icon-Painting?

  • “Angel of the Golden Hair”

    • Novgorod, 12th century

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67
<p>What was this icon, time period, and art details?</p>

What was this icon, time period, and art details?

  • Novgorod art reaches its peak 14th - 16th centuries

  • Many Novgorod icons best-known, like this, feature “St. George and the Dragon”

    • Emphasis on drawing, line

    • Brighter colors and more complex drawing compared to earlier Kievan styles

  • Novgorod decline 15th century as Moscow gain importance again, including it’s art

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68
<p>What icon painting is this?</p>

What icon painting is this?

Medieval 14th century St. George

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69
<p>What icon painting is this?</p>

What icon painting is this?

Modern St. George, 1911 by Kandinsky

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70

Popular school for Icons is where in Russia?

Moscow; Moscow School of Icon painting

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71

What time period in Moscow was the greatest icon painting made?

16th century

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72

When did Moscow become Russia’s leading city again?

15th century

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73

Difference in Moscow art

  • More complexity in symbolism, composition

  • More gentle depiction of Christ, saints

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74

Who is the best know master of icon painting from this period?

Andrei Rublev

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75
<p>What is Andrei Rublev most famous icon?</p>

What is Andrei Rublev most famous icon?

  • “Old Testament Trinity” in the 15th century

  • It shows 3 angels hosted by Abraham

    • Art critics think the 3 angels represent God the Father, Christ the Son, and Holy Spirit

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76
<p>What is this and by who?</p>

What is this and by who?

“Christ, icon” by Rublev

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77
<p>What is this and by who?</p>

What is this and by who?

“Evangelist Matthew, manuscript miniature” by Rublev

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78
<p>What is this and by who?</p>

What is this and by who?

“Baptism of Jesus, fresco” by Rublev

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79

What time period is the rise of Moscow

1100s - 1380

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80

Who defeat the mongols?

Princes of Moscow defeat them

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81
<p>When does Moscow take shape and how is it set up?</p>

When does Moscow take shape and how is it set up?

  • 1100s: it is a small city with a big wall or kremlin, called a fortress

  • Red Square is outside Kremlin, one side backs up to Kremlin wall

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82

What famous cathedral is in Moscow Kremlin?

St. Basil’s Cathedral

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83

In what well-known text is Moscow mentioned in?

The Primary Chronicle

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84

Who laid the foundation for Moscow’s walls?

Prince Yuri Dolgoruky

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85

What starts happening to Early Moscow?

  • Princes start moving from Novgorod to Moscow

  • They start amassing territory, and Moscow grows and grows

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86

Who is Ivan Kalita (a.k.a. Moneybags)

  • Great money manager and keeps Mongols happy with tribute but kept some money for Russians

  • Ransoms Russian prisoners and settles them in

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87

What did Ivan Kalita convince the head of the Russian Church?

  • He convinced him to abandon Kiev for Moscow in 1326

    • In 1453, Moscow becomes the spiritual center of Russia, and known as the “Third Rome”

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88

Who is Dmitrii Donskoy, and why is he important?

  • Wins crucial battle between Russian and Mongols in 1380 at the Battle of Kulikovo

    • This marks the end of Mongol yoke

    • Moscow reigns supreme, other cities absorbed into Muscovite state

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89

Does the Battle of Kulikovo completely removes the Mongols?

No, they are not truly gone until Ivan III (1462-1505)

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90

What period marks Ivan III?

The beginning of Muscovite Russia

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91

When did Ivan IV, Ivan Groznyi (the Terrible) rule?

1533-1584

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92

When was Ivan the terrible crowned and who does he marry?

At age 16 and marries Anastasia Romanova

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93

What does the death of Anastasia Romanova do to Ivan IV?

  • He abandons throne, but is begged to return

    • Places condition, has 6 subsequent wives, kills his son/heir, and according to Soviet autopsy, he died due to a poisoning

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94

What were the conditions that Ivan IV placed to retake his thorne?

  • secret police = oprichnina

  • Tsar’s right to punish as he wished

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95

What followed after Ivan IV’s death and who took the throne?

The Time of Troubles; Boris Godunov seized the throne 1598

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96

When was the body of Ivan’s youngest son, Dmitrii, found and who killed him?

In 1591; people believed it was Godunov

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97

Who poses as Dmitrii?

Grigorii Otrepev in 1601

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98

When was “False Fmitrii” made czar?

1605

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99

When and who murdered Flase Dmitrii?

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100

Which famous figure wrote the play Boris Godunov?

Pushkin wrote in 1825, published 1831, and approved for performance 1866

  • Mussorgsky’s 1874 opera based on this play

  • Revised by Rimsky-Korsakov

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