3: Human Development

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Lev Vygotsky

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119 Terms

1

Lev Vygotsky

________: Proposed cognitive development was not universal for all children but instead depended heavily on culture and environment where the child grew up.

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Accommodation

________ (learning): Modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem, according to Piaget.

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3

Puberty

________: Biologically defined period during which a person matures sexually and becomes capable of reproduction.

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4

Enrichment

________: In development, deliberately making an environment more stimulating, nutritional, comforting, loving, and so forth.

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5

Signals

________: In early language development, behaviors, such as touching, vocalizing, gazing, or smiling, that allow the nonverbal interaction and turn- taking between parent and child.

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6

Heredity

________ " (nature): "The transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parent to offspring through genes.

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7

Developmental psychology

________: The study of the normal changes in behavior that occur across the lifespan.

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8

Epigenetics

________: The study of changes in organisms that are caused by modifications to gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself.

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9

Carol Gilligan

________ distinguished between Kohlbergs fairness (justice) perspective and a harm (caring) perspective.

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10

Transformation

________ (Piagetian): The mental ability to change the shape or form of a substance (such as clay or water) and the perceive that its volume remains the same.

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11

Egocentrism

________ can relate to that people standing in other locations may not see what they can see from where they are situated.

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12

Conservation

________ refers to the understanding that physical quantities stay the same even if they change their shape or appearance.

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13

Assimilation

________: The application of an established schema to new objects or problems, according to Piaget.

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14

Object permanence

________: Recognizing that physical things continue to exist, even when they are no longer visible.

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15

Conventional

________: moral thinking is guided by a desire to please others or follow rules.

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16

Motherese

________ (patentese): A pattern of speech used when talking to infants, marked by a higher- pitched voice; short, simple sentences; repetition; slower speech; and exaggerated voice inflections.

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17

Teratogen

________: A harmful substance that can cause birth defects.

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18

Polygenic characteristics

________: Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination.

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19

Surrogate

________ mother: A substitute mother (in animal research, often an inanimate object or a dummy)

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20

Congenital problems

________: Defects that originate during prenatal development in the womb.

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21

Withdrawal of love

________: Withholding affection to enforce child discipline.

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22

Contact comfort

________: A pleasant and reassuring feeling that human and animal infants get from touching or clinging to something soft and warm, usually their mothers.

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23

Temperament

________: General pattern of attention, arousal, and mood that is evident from birth.

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24

Adolescence

________: The culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood.

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25

Erik Erikson

________: Suggested would should face a psychosocial dilemma at every stage of life.

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26

Piaget

________ believed that children go through a fixed series of cognitive stages.

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27

Genome

________: Genetic heritage that will determine so many of our physical and psychological characteristics.

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28

Biological predisposition

________: The presumed hereditary readiness of humans to learn certain skills, such as how to use language or a readiness to behave in particular ways.

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29

Self esteem

________: Regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself.

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30

Postconventional

________: moral thinking is guided by self- chosen ethical principles.

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31

Deoxyribonucleic acid

________ (DNA): A molecular structure that contains coded genetic information.

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32

DNA

The ________ is twisted into chromosomes, and the ________ in each of the bodys cells is identical.

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33

Preconventional

________: moral thinking is guided by consequences (e.g., reward, punishment)

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34

Theory of mind

________: The understanding that people have mental states, such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions and that other peoples mental states can be different from ones own.

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35

Schema

________: A mental structure composed of an organized learned body of knowledge or skills about a particular topic, according to Piaget.

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36

Chromosomes

________: Rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house an individuals genes.

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37

Genes

________ reside on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the nucleus of each cell.

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38

hereditary instructions

The genes in each cell carry ________.

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39

Socioemotional development

________: Area of psychology concerned with changes in emotions and social relationships.

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40

Good quality relationships

________ are promoted when caregivers are sensitive to their babies signals.

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41

Genetic disorders

________: Problems caused by defects in the genes or by inherited characteristics.

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42

Psychosocial dilemma

________: A conflict between personal impulses and the social world.

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43

Jean Piaget

________: Proposed that childrens cognitive skills progress through a series of maturational stages.

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44

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

________ (FASD): A collection of conditions occurring in children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy.

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45

Basic emotions

________ emerge very early in childhood and include happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust.

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46

Sensorimotor stage

________ (0- 2 Years): Piagets initial stage of development, when the infants mental activity is only sensory perception and motor skills.

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47

physical growth

Maturation: The ________ and development of the body, brain, and nervous system.

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48

Parental styles

________: Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children.

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49

Insecure ambivalent attachment

________: An anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with a parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited.

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50

positive emotions

Though ________ are common, survey data suggest that recent generations of adolescents appear to be managing higher levels of sadness (depression) and fear (anxiety) than has been the case in the past.

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51

Developmental psychology

The study of the normal changes in behavior that occur across the lifespan

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52

Heredity ("nature")

The transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parent to offspring through genes

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53

Genome

Genetic heritage that will determine so many of our physical and psychological characteristics

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54

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A molecular structure that contains coded genetic information

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55

Chromosomes

Rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house an individuals genes

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56

Genes

Areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information

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57

Genetic disorders

Problems caused by defects in the genes or by inherited characteristics

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58

Dominant gene

A gene whose influence will be expressed each time that the gene is present

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59

Recessive gene

A gene whose influence will be expressed only when it is paired with a second recessive gene of the same type

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60

Polygenic characteristics

Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination

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61

Environment ("nurture")

The sum of all external conditions affecting development, including especially the effects of learning

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62

Teratogen

A harmful substance that can cause birth defects

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63

Congenital problems

Defects that originate during prenatal development in the womb

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64

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

A collection of conditions occurring in children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy

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65

Sensitive period

During development, a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences

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66

Deprivation

In development, the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love, and so forth; a condition of absence

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67

Enrichment

In development, deliberately making an environment more stimulating, nutritional, comforting, loving, and so forth

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68

Epigenetics

The study of changes in organisms that are caused by modifications to gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself

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69

Maturation

The physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system

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70

Puberty

Biologically defined period during which a person matures sexually and becomes capable of reproduction

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71

Adolescence

The culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood

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72

Socioemotional development

Area of psychology concerned with changes in emotions and social relationships

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73

Social smile

Smiling elicited by a social stimulus, such as seeing a parents face

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74

Erik Erikson

Suggested would should face a psychosocial dilemma at every stage of life

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75

Psychosocial dilemma

A conflict between personal impulses and the social world

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76

Affectional needs

Emotional needs for care, love, and positive relationships with others

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77

Surrogate mother

A substitute mother (in animal research, often an inanimate object or a dummy)

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78

Contact comfort

A pleasant and reassuring feeling that human and animal infants get from touching or clinging to something soft and warm, usually their mothers

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79

Separation anxiety

Distress displayed by infants when they are separated from their parents or principal caregivers

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80

Temperament

General pattern of attention, arousal, and mood that is evident from birth

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81

Attachment

Emotional bonding between an infant and its caregivers that results from infants feelings of security with the caregiver in times of stress or uncertainty

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82

Secure attachment

A stable and positive emotional bond

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83

Insecure-avoidant attachment

An anxious emotional bond marked by a tendency to avoid reunion with a parent or caregiver

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84

Insecure-ambivalent attachment

An anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with a parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited

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85

Parental styles

Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children

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86

Authoritarian parents

Parents who enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority

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87

Power assertion

The use of physical punishment or coercion to enforce child discipline

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88

Withdrawal of love

Withholding affection to enforce child discipline

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89

Self-esteem

Regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself

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90

Permissive parents

Parents who give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or do not require the child to take responsibility

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91

Authoritative parents

Parents who supply firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection

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92

Emerging adulthood

A socially accepted period of extended adolescence that is now quite common in Western and Westernized societies

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93

Biological predisposition

The presumed hereditary readiness of humans to learn certain skills, such as how to use language or a readiness to behave in particular ways

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94

Signals

In early language development, behaviors, such as touching, vocalizing, gazing, or smiling, that allow the nonverbal interaction and turn-taking between parent and child

New cards
95

Motherese (patentese)

A pattern of speech used when talking to infants, marked by a higher-pitched voice; short, simple sentences; repetition; slower speech; and exaggerated voice inflections

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96

Jean Piaget

Proposed that childrens cognitive skills progress through a series of maturational stages

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97

Schema

A mental structure composed of an organized learned body of knowledge or skills about a particular topic, according to Piaget

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98

Assimilation

The application of an established schema to new objects or problems, according to Piaget

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99

Accommodation (learning)

Modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem, according to Piaget

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100

Sensorimotor stage (0-2 Years)

Piagets initial stage of development, when the infants mental activity is only sensory perception and motor skills

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