APHG Unit 3 Vocab

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Acculturation

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63 Terms

1

Acculturation

People within one culture adopting traits from the other.

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2

Artifact

Visible, physical objects created by a culture.

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3

Culture Hearth

The geographic origin of a culture or cultural trait.

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4

Culture Complex

The group of traits that define a particular culture

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5

Culture Trait

A single distinguishing visible feature of regular occurrence within a culture.

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6

Culture Realm

Areas of the world that share cultural traits such as language, religious traditions, food preferences, architecture, and/or shared history.

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7

Culture Region

A geographic region that is characterized by a predominantly uniform culture.

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8

Cultural Convergence

The process of two or more cultures coming into contact with each other and adopting each other’s traits to become more alike.

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9

Cultural Divergence

Cultures become less alike due to both cultural and physical barriers. The process of a culture restricting contact with other cultures in an attempt to retain its originality.

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10

Cultural Landscape

Natural landscape that has been modified by humans, reflecting their cultural beliefs and values.

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11

Nonmaterial culture

Anything on the landscape that comprises culture that cannot be physically touched

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12

Habit

Repetitive acts of individuals.

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13

Custom

Repetitive acts of groups.

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14

Folk Culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

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15

Popular Culture

Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.

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16

Globalization

Actions of processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

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17

Independent (parallel) invention/innovation

Innovations developed in two or more unconnected hearths by individuals of groups acting independently.

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18

Mentifact

The ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge of a culture.

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19

Sequent Occupance

The idea that societies or cultural groups leave their cultural imprints when they live in a place, each contributing to the overall cultural landscape over time.

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20

Sociofact

The ways in which a society behaves and organizes institutions.

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21

Syncretism

When two cultures blend together and form a new cultural trait.

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22

Taboo

A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.

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23

Terroir

The contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastes.

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24

Uniform Landscape

Loss of uniqueness of a place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next or does not inspire any strong emotional or cultural ties.

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25

Language

A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.

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26

Creole (Creolized)

A language that results from mixing a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated

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27

Dialect

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

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28

Extinct Language

A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.

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29

Ideogram

System of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a sound

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30

Isogloss

A boundary line between two distinct linguistic regions.

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31

Isolated Language

A language that is unrelated to any other language and therefore not attached to any language family

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32

Language Branch

A collection of languages related by a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago, derived from the same family.

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33

Language Group

A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display few differences in grammar and vocabulary

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34

Language Family

A collection of languages related by a common ancestor long before recorded history

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35

Lingua Franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people with different native languages

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36

Official Language

The language (s) adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

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37

Protolanguage

Language ancestral to several daughter languages.

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38

Standard Language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications

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39

Vernacular

A language or dialect spoken by the common people of a region

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40

Agnosticism

The view or belief that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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41

Animism

Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

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42

Atheism

The belief that there is no God

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43

Autonomous Religion

A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally

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44

Caste

The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law

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45

Cosmogony

A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.

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46

Branch

A large and fundamental division within a religion.

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47

Denomination

A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single legal or administrative body

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48

Ethnic Religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated special distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.

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49

Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a region

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50

Secularism

The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife, rejects religion.

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51

Universalizing

A religion that claims global truth, applicability, and seeks the conversion of all human-kind.

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52

Missionary

An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion

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53

Monotheism

Belief system in which one Supreme Being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe; belief in one god.

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54

Polytheism

Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe; belief in multiple gods.

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55

Pagan

A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.

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56

Pilgrimage

A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.

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57

Sect

A relatively small group that was broken away from an established denomination

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58

Hierarchical Religion

A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control

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59

Interfaith Boundary

Boundaries between the world’s major faiths

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60

Intrafaith Boundary

Boundaries within a single major faith

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61

Centripetal

Characteristics that unify a country and provide stability.

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62

Centrifugal

Characteristics that divide a country and create instability, conflict, and violence.

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63

Assimilation

When one culture abandons their original culture and adopts another culture. Sometimes voluntary, other times forced.

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