COMM3300 - Midterm Exam (Modules 1-5)

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Two different views of technologies

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Two different views of technologies

(1) utopian; (2) dystopian

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Utopian (view of technology)

technology is great - positive attitude toward technology; positive outcomes and benefits

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Dystopian (view of technology)

Technology is evil; sources of the negative social and economic issues

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4 layers of the ecosystem perspective

(1) individual users; (2) hardware, software, content; (3) organizational infrastructure; (4) social systems

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individual users

layer in ecosystem perspective

people who put the technology into use

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hardware/software/content

layer in ecosystem perspective

3 components of the technology itself

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hardware

part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective

the physical equipment of the system

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software

part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective

the programs, algorithms that enable the operation of the hardware (ex: browser, apps, software)

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content

part of hardware/software/content layer in ecosystem perspective

information / data shown, transmitted, created, stored over the system; without content, hardware and software are nothing

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organizational infrastructure

layer in ecosystem perspective

potential deployment at the organizational level (can affect/speed up development of technology); organizational support; culture and norms (partnering, endorsements)

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social systems - macro level

layer in ecosystem perspective

media (technology can be influenced by how media portrays technology) :: political (system): internet was a political product, net neutrality :: economic (economy): generating profit :: social (society): pokemon go added social aspects to increase usage of the game

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chindogu

technologies that were created but found to be useless by users and quickly given up by the market

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productivity paradox

as ICT got adopted and used, productivity remained relatively unchanged. More money was spent on computer, software; productivity remained unchanged/ stable. 90s and early 90s

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ICT

information and communications technology

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3 stages of technology use

(1) supplementation; (2) enlargement; (3) reconfiguration

When a new communication technology is released, these stages happen. Not all technology will be lucky enough to go through all stages.

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supplementation

stage of technology use

an initial stage / phase: this new technology compliments

use technologies to do old things in new ways

cost savings rather than revenue generation

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supplementation examples

effects of ______ examples

  • postal mail → email

  • face-to-face meetings → Facetime/Skype

  • Diary → Blogs

  • Dictionary → Google/Wikipedia

  • Social gathering → social media / online communities / virtual worlds

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enlargement

stage of technology use

the use of technology expands

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reconfiguration

stage of technology use

it will reconfigure the way we communicate, work with each other, the way we socialize, productivity. revolutionizes/changes the pattern and creates new structure. example: Facebook

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(1) expected; (2) observed

budget vs. time

2 telecommunications transportation tradeoff trends

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(1) expected trend and (2) observed trend

Difference between the ____ trend and ___ trend of the telecommunications transportation tradeoff.

As we spend more money on technology, our travel went up.

Unlike what was expected, complex messages still need to be had face-to-face - which is critical to go over things in detail

In the beginning, communication technology is helpful, but it does not replace human to human interpersonal communication. It does, however, enhance/augment these connections.

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Moore's Law

Computational power doubles every 24 months

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Metcalfe's Law

Networking technology / interactive medium requires multiple users or to gain as many users as possible. Example: Craigslist, Yelp, GroupMe

V = U² - U / 2

V=Value :: U=Number of Users

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Examples of access or "on-demand" economy

These are examples of access or "______" economies:

Uber - ride share Wikipedia - knowledge Air-BNB - share homes

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Diffusion of Innovations

categorized people into 5 types of technology adaptors

Everett Rogers is the founder of ___ of ___.

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technology adopters

5 types of ___ ___

  1. Innovators

  2. Early adopter

  3. Early majority

  4. Late majority

  5. Laggards

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bell-curve

___-curve for distribution of 5 types of adopters

  1. Innovators - 2.5%

  2. Early adopter - 13.5%

  3. Early majority - 34%

  4. Late majority - 34%

  5. Laggards - 16%

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S-curve

-:

Take-off vs. growth speed of Innovation

Adoption of Innovation vs. time

Take-off of innovation is slow :: the adoption of innovation will be fast :: after time slowly goes by, the adoption of the technology will grow and saturate the market

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positive if innovation is superior to previous technology fulfilling same needs (do it better, cheaper, faster, more effectively), faster diffusion

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: relative advantage

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positive extent to which innovation is consistent with past experience

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: compatibility

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negative if difficulty is high, the slower the rate of diffusion

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: complexity

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positive how visible/immediate is the use of innovation and seeing benefits of using technology

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: observability

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positive if there is ability to allow users to try technology, the rate of diffusion will be positive

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: trialability

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negative higher the price, slower the rate of diffusion

positive or negative factor influencing the rate of diffusion: price

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rate of diffusion

6 factors influencing the ___ of ___:

  1. relative advantage

  2. compatibility

  3. complexity

  4. observability

  5. trialability

  6. price

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cable, satellite, terrestrial (over the air/antennas)

3 major channels for TV reception in US

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DTV

Digital television

TV system that uses digital instead of analog signals

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DTV

advantageous features of ___:

less bandwidth consumption broadcasts HD TV programs superior video and audio quality

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high definition television

HDTV

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interlaced scanning

first scan the odd lines, then even lines to fill frame

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progressive scanning

most popular scanning method each entire frame is scanned in one pass, which makes is faster

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June 12, 2009

Analog-to-digital deadline in the US

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people who met BOTH of these criteria:

  • not cable or satellite subscribers

  • people who do not have DTV sets

Who was affected by DTV transition?

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media richness

the ability to change understanding within a time interval.

continuum of richness: from lean medium (low level) to rich medium (high level)

also known as "information richness"

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4 dimensions of media richness

4 dimensions of ____ ____:

  1. capacity for instant feedback

  2. personalization

  3. multiple cues

  4. the use of natural/conversational language vs. formal coded language

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rich

rich or lean media richness?

instant feedback: face-to-face / phone conversation

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medium

rich or lean media richness?

slower feedback: messaging

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order in media richness hierarchy

order in ___ ___ hierarchy:

  1. face-to-face

  2. video conferencing

  3. telephone

  4. text chat / IM

  5. email/letters

  6. poster

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Media Richness Theory

Theoretical argument of ___ ___ Theory:

richer media are not always better than leaner media

the media use is most effective if the richness of the media matches or fits the equivocality of the communication task

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equivocality

the degree to which a decision-making situation and information related to it are subject to multiple interpretations

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1st era

Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet:

1954-1963

scientific and engineering applications (conduct numerical calculations, research purposes)

military focus (Cold War)

machine-specific programming languages - lack of compatibility across different machines

primitive computers by today's standards (large size, punch cards, magnetic tape storage)

pre-internet era: isolated computers (no internet)

value: do things more quickly

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2nd era

Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet:

1964-1976

computers got connected - ARPANET constructed in 1969

new computer architecture established to differentiate business applications and scientific computations

two divisions of computer development: (1) super computers for military use/research; (2) modern, lower-end computers for business (IBM)

standardized programming languages

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3rd era

Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet:

1977-1984

Users became involved in system development

  • computers became more user friendly

increasing focus on business / commercial applications

IBM's first PC was invented in 1981 - affordable, portable, easier to operate

easy-to-use operating systems and interface (Microsoft DOS)

1983: required use of IP and TCP protocols to regulate how packets were transmitted

1984: ARPANET split into two networks: ARPANET and MILNET

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internet protocol

IP

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transmission and control protocols

TCP

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4th era

Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet:

1985-1996

PCs popularized

user-driven software and programs

commercialization of the Internet and applications

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5th era

Which era of 5 eras in the history of computers and the Internet:

1997-2005

diffusion of the internet

www growth: "web 1.0"

  • static websites that provide information vs interaction

search engines became a driving force because of increased information on the web

mobile computing was not "smart" yet

dot-com bubble: financial crisis - over-investment into the internet

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1990

when was WWW (world wide web) created?

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decentralized packet switching computer network

more robust, resilient, flexible than a centralized network

What is the fundamental mechanism of the computer network (internet)?

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The first Internet

Created by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)

What is ARPANET?

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Department of Defense (Pentagon)

Who founded ARPANET?

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1969

When was ARPANET (the first internet) found?

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1983 - 3rd era

What year and era required use of IP and TCP?

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1st era

What era was 1954-1963?

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2nd era

What era was 1964-1976?

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3rd era

What era was 1977-1984?

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4th era

What era was 1985-1996?

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5th era

What era was 1997-2004?

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new era

2004-now

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new era

Which era is this:

"web 2.0"

mobile communication and computing - rise of smart phones and mobile apps

cloud computing

augmented reality

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web 1.0

Web X.0 is:

focus on publishing information

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web 2.0

Web X.0 is:

focus on searching and sharing information about users and user interaction

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1969

when was the Internet created?

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1990

when was WWW created?

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1971

When was email created

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Mosaic

What is the first graphical browser

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1993

When was Mosiac created

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1994

What year did commercial users outnumber academic users 2-1

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1995

What year:

NSFNET back to research network

Internet was commercialized: AOL, Prodigy, Compuserve, Delify

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National Science Foundation Network

What is NSFNET

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reinvention

After the 5 types of technology adopters, what is the new added 6th type?

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internet

Internet vs WWW: which one is this

global network connecting millions of independent computers

decentralized

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world wide web

Internet vs WWW: which one is this

information-sharing model built on top of the internet using the HTTP protocol to transmit data.

uses browsers to access web pages linked via hyperlinks

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the "big three"

this is the "___ ___"

Artificial Intelligence Big data Cloud computing

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cloud computing

storage of data

software on the internet

performance of computational tasks away from computers taking place on servers / internet

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cloud storage

examples of ___ ___ systems:

Dropbox, Google Docs, iCloud, Box, SkyDrive

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the cloud

these are advantages of the ___:

flexibility, mobility, portability, mostly free, supports collaborative work, no need to back up work

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the cloud

cons of the ___:

dead without internet, limited storage, privacy and security

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augmented reality

the interaction of superimposed graphics, audio, and other sense enhancements over real-world environment that is displayed in real-time

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augmented reality

AR

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wearable technology and games

current application of augmented reality: apple watch, google glass, pokemon go

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unintended consequences

three types of ____ ____:

  1. a positive unexpected benefit

  2. a potential source of problems

  3. a negative or perverse effect

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smart mobs

___ ___:

a form of self-organizing social group through technology-mediated, intelligent "emergent behavior"

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volume, velocity, variety, veracity

the four V's of Big Data

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volume

4 V's of Big Data:

scale of data, size

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velocity

4 V's of Big Data:

analysis of streaming data, network connections, trade information

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variety

4 V's of Big Data:

different forms of data - nature, source, types (videos, tweets, content)

diversified types of data

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veracity

4 V's of Big Data:

uncertainty of data about accuracy, the right kind of data

does data truthfully represent what you are collecting

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artificial intelligence (AI)

the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs

non-human agents think and act like humans

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artificial intelligence (AI)

components of ___ ___:

perception and cognition machine learning and reasoning planning and problem-solving communication motion and manipulation social and affective computing - ability to interact, identify emotions

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