psychopathology 165 midterm review :)

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distress (four ds of diagnosis)

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based on professor farbers study review sheet + in class notes/presentations + textbook

97 Terms

1

distress (four ds of diagnosis)

defined by the individual, does the symptom cause suffering/concern

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2

deviance (four ds of diagnosis)

noncompliance with social customs, can be weaponized and misunderstood in the context of marginalization (subjective)

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3

dysfunction (four ds of diagnosis)

function vs role/potential, inability to perform responsibility

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4

dangerousness (four ds of diagnosis)

hurting self or others, continuum

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5

distress, deviance, dysfunction, dangerousness

four ds of diagnosis

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6

trephining (demonology)

chipping open of skulls during the stone age to allow evil spirits to escape (some survived)

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7

exorcism (demonology)

used by greeks, chinese, hebrews, egyptians, prayer noises, flogging, starvation, aimed to cast out evil

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8

repentance for sin (demonology)

prayers, curses, epithets, holy water, flogging, starving, hot water

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9

healthy cultural paranoia (cultural relativism)

adaptive response to lived experience of oppression, development of defense mechanisms as a consequence of systemic oppression, impacts on neural functioning, prevalence of overpathologizing in racial minorities

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10

multicultural psychology (cultural relativism)

learning about worldviews, lifestyles, challenges cultures face, etc

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11

cultural relativism

understanding ones beliefs and actions within the greater context of their cultural background

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12

unconditioned stimulus (classical conditioning)

stimulus that leads to an automatic response

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13

unconditioned response (classical conditioning)

automatic response to a stimulus

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14

conditioned stimulus (classical conditioning)

neutral stimulus paired with ucs that triggers conditioned response

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15

conditioned response (classical conditioning)

learned response to previously neutral stimulus

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16

classical conditioning

ucs → ucr, ucs + ns → cr, cs → cr

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17

positive reinforcement (operant conditioning)

encourages behavior, increasing likelihood of behavior

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18

negative reinforcement (operant conditioning)

removes averse stimuli, increasing likelihood of behavior, NOT PUNISHMENT

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19

operant conditioning

modification of behavior through reinforcement/punishment

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20

defense mechanisms

unconscious psychological responses to protect from internal stress

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21

repression (defense mechanisms)

subconsciously preventing dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness

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22

reaction formation (defense mechanisms)

acting opposite to ones true feelings

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23

projection (defense mechanisms)

distancing self desires by attributing thoughts to others

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24

rationalization (defense mechanisms)

giving socially acceptable reasons for behaviors unrelated to true motives

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25

displacement (defense mechanisms)

directing emotions to a substitute target

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26

regression (defense mechanisms)

retreating to earlier developmental levels

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27

reliability

degree to which a test yields the same results repeatedly under the same circumstances

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28

test-retest (reliability)

yields same results at different points in time

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29

internal consistency (reliability)

various parts of test give consistent results throughout

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30

interrater (reliability)

consistency when administered by different administrators

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31

validity

extent to which a test actually performs its intended function

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32

predictive (validity)

how well a test predicts a persons behavior/response/performance

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33

construct (validity)

how well a test relates to the characteristics/disorder in question

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34

content (validity)

how well a test measures what its supposed to measure

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35

psychological assessment

gathering info and drawing conclusions about the traits, skills, abilities, emotional functioning and psychological problems of an individual

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36

clinical interview (psychological assessment)

observation of verbal/nonverbal behaviors and speciifc info assists in psychodiagnosis and treatment planning

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37

formal standardized interview (psychological assessment)

yes/no or quantitative ratings, specific questions

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38

unstructured interview (psychological assessment)

open ended questions, follow up discussion

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39

mental status examination (psychological assessment)

uses questions, observations and tasks to briefly evaluate a clients cognitive, psychological and behavioral functioning, specific structured questions and open ended, focus on appearance, mood, affect, speech, thoughts, memory, knowledge, how does culture impact interpretation

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40

projective personality test (psychological assessment)

presents client with ambiguous stimuli and client responds, interpretation by administrator is subjective and unreliable/invalid

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41

self report inventory (psychological assessment)

assess personality, depression, anxiety and emotional reactivity, open ended questions, respond to list

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42

intelligence tests (psychological assessment)

estimate current cognitive function to score iq (mean 100)

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43

id (psychodynamic theory)

primal desires, unconscious

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44

superego (psychodynamic theory)

ethical moral standards, unconscious

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45

ego (psychodynamic theory)

realistic, compromise between id/superego

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46

existential theory

fundamental struggle with givens of existence (meaninglessness, death, freedom, isolation)

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47

dopamine (neurotransmitters)

motivation, reward seeking, movement, emotional responses, attention, planning, associated with depression

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48

adrenaline/noradrenaline (neurotransmitters)

attention, arousal, consciousness, dreams, moods, stress, associated with anxiety

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49

glutamete (neurotransmitters)

cognition, memory, learning, associated with depression

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50

gaba (neurotransmitters)

inhibition, calming, moods, muscles, associated with anxiety

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51

serotonin (neurotransmitters)

inhibition, temperature, moods, appetite, sleep, aggression, associated with anxiety/depression

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52

cortisol (neurotransmitters)

steriods, stress, associated with anxiety/depression

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53

melatonin (neurotransmitters)

sleep, associated with seasonal depression/ocd

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54

oxytocin (neurotransmitters)

lactation, complex social behavior, associated with anxiety

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55

biological (etiology of phobias)

amygdala signals hpa axis setting off fight/flight response which then travels to high level processing, misinterpretation/magnification cues worse anxiety, gaba availablity negatively correlates with anxiety, serotonin levels negatively correlate with arousal, gene alteration affects serotonin transport

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56

psychological (etiology of phobias)

anxiety sensitivity, negative appraisal, reappraisal decreases symptoms

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57

sociocultural (etiology of phobias)

low income brackets, lack of social support, discrimination/prejudice, internalized racism

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58

social anxiety disorder

fear of scrutiny/embarrassment disproportionate to reality, leads to avoidance, often comorbid with depression, substance abuse, and suicidality

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59

specific phobias

fear of object/situation disproportionate to reality, most common are creatures/environment/injury/situation

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60

agoraphobia

fear of being unable to escape/losing control over oneself, leads to panic attacks

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61

generalized anxiety disorder

persistent high levels of anxiety and worry

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62

obsessive compulsive disorder

persistent anxiety producing thoughts/images, overwhelming need to act against anxiety/prevent event

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63

localized (dissociative amnesia)

being unable to recall a specific event/period, usually trauma related

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64

systemized (dissociative amnesia)

being unable to recall a specific category of memory

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65

selective (dissociative amnesia)

being unable to recall small parts of events in a period of time

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66

fugue (dissociative amnesia)

being unable to recall identity or past, reversible amnesia

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67

somatic symptom disorder

reporting/reacting to distressing symptoms, testing doesnt reduce symptoms/anxiety, symptoms are real but hyperfocused on

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68

illness anxiety disorder

fixating on having/getting sick despite lack of symptoms, disease conviction/fear/preoccupation, misinterpretation of sensations, cyberchondria

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69

conversion disorder

symptoms inconsistent with recognized disorders brought on by stressors, cause distress/impairment, typically psychogenic movement/sensory disorders

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70

factitious disorder

deliberately inducing symptoms for attention within self or others, formerly known as munchausen syndrome

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71

(hypo)manic episode (criteria)

3 of following: elevated self esteem, lowered need for sleep, more talkative than usual, racing thoughts, easily distractible, restlessness, impulsivity - hypo 4 days long, manic 7 days long more severe

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72

(major) depressive episode (criteria)

4 of following: appetite/weight disturbance, sleep disturbances, restlessness, fatigue, guilt/worthlessness, concentration difficulty, suicidality - 2 weeks long

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73

faulty thinking

arbitrary inference, personalization, overgeneralization, magnificationminimization, polarized thinking, selective abstraction

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74

bipolar 1 disorder

at least 1 manic episode that significantly impacts functioning most of the day for 7 days, may not have depression

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75

bipolar 2 disorder

at least 1 depressive episode for 2 weeks and 1 hypomanic episode, less severe mania, underdiagnosed

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76

hirsh study (suicide prevention)

higher pessimism and depressive symptoms are associated with lower existential wellbeing

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77

marco study (suicide prevention)

meaning in life is a significant variable in preventing suicide in women with bpd

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78

taliaferro study (suicide prevention)

higher spiritual wellbeing in college students is associated with lower suicidality

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79

cutcliffe study (suicide prevention)

human connection and making meaning out of life are significant variables in recovery for survivors

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80

joiner theory

perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belonging, leads to acquired capacity of suicide

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81

protective factors in suicidality

sense of belonging, social connectedness, coping skills, distress tolerance, hope

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82

anorexia nervosa

starving, pursuit of thinness, distorted body image

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83

restrictive subtype (anorexia nervosa)

emphasis on dieting/exercise to lose weight

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84

binge eating/purging subtype (anorexia nervosa)

pattern of binge eating food and vomiting or using diuretics to prevent weight gain/lose weight

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85

bulimia nervosa

recurrent episodes of binging once per week for 3 months, loss of control, weight loss by purging, aware of disordered patterns, seeks to regulate emotions with food

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86

at risk populations (eating disorders)

females, gay men, certain racial minorities have protective factors against

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87

tolerance (substance abuse)

body adapts, progressive decrease in effectiveness

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88

withdrawal (substance abuse)

negative physiological effects due to lack of use

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89

physiological dependence (substance abuse)

body adapts to substance, intoxication becomes new baseline

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90

addiction (substance abuse)

compulsive drug seeking, loss of control

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91

intoxication (substance abuse)

pattern of behavior/physiological changes with substance use

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92

psychoactive substances (substance abuse)

substances that alter mood, thought etc

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93

moderate (drinking)

1 per day women, 2 per day men

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94

heavy (drinking)

1 per day 7 per week women, 2 per day 14 per week men

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95

binge (drinking)

episodic, 4 women 5 men

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96

delirium tremens

withdrawal symptom, central nervous system damage, anxiety, agitation, confusion, seizures, hallucinations, lethargy

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97

alcohol poisoning

impaired breathing, coma, death

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