CSD 541 Midterm

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61 Terms

1

Form

Phonology, morphology, syntax

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2

Content

Semantics

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3

Use

Pragmatics

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4

What is the "gold standard" in measuring language production?

Language sample

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5

Poverty of stimulus

Adults offer poor examples of proper speech

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6

Parameters

The parts of grammar that are different for each language

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7

Principles

The parts of grammar that are true for all languages

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8

Linguistic performance

What the speaker actually says

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9

Linguistic competence

A speaker's internalized knowledge of a language

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10

Yang

Broadened the definition of Nativism to include innate core grammar and learned periphery elements

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11

How does Nativism think children learn language?

Through innate principles and by setting parameters according to their environment

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12

What mechanism does Nativism think children use to acquire language?

Universal Grammar

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13

Who came up with Universal Grammar?

Noam Chomsky

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14

Principle C

Ambiguous sentences such as "Mickey Mouse said he likes pizza."

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15

How does Nativism apply to treating language impairments?

The SLP must reset parameters

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16

Bandura's abstract modeling

Children develop rule-based systems based on interactions and vocalizations they've observed

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17

Skinner

Suggested language is acquired because of environmental influences; verbal behavior is learned via imitation, practice, and reinforcement

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18

Are children active or passive learners according to Social Interactionism?

Active

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19

Recast

Repeat the child's utterance with adult grammar; "car go" becomes "yes, the car is going."

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20

Expansion

Add to the child's utterance; "car go" becomes "car go fast"

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21

Zone of Proximal Development

The difference between what the child can do on their own and what they can do with assistance

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22

How can you lessen the bias of standardized testing?

Dynamic assessment

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23

Scaffolding

A system or framework of support provided by an instructor to help a student reach the next level of learning

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24

What are two of the most important factors of teaching language according to Social Interactionism?

Meaningful context and frequent models

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25

Domain general

We use a similar learning mechanism for reading, math, music, etc.

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26

Domain specific

We use a specific cognitive process to learn a specific function

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27

Child-directed speech

Slower rate, higher pitched, more exaggerated, multisensory input, tailored to be developmentally appropriate

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28

How is language acquired according to the interactive model?

Through social interactions with caregivers

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29

Why are errors made according to the interactive model?

The child has difficulty organizing and assimilating information from context

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30

How is language acquired according to the functional theory?

Through child hypothesis-testing via interacting with their language environment

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31

Why are errors made according to the functional theory?

Cue costs and competition

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32

How is language acquired according to the rare event cognitive theory?

Through the interaction of cognitive abilities and social communication

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33

Why are errors made according to the rare event cognitive theory?

Problems with attending, storage, comparing, retrieving, or hypothesizing

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34

How is language acquired according to Vygotsky?

Through social contact with a more advanced peer

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35

Why are errors made according to Vygotsky?

Part of the learning process

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36

Four bases of acquisition

Biological preparations, nurturance, sensorimotor experiences, linguistic experiences

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37

Lateralization in adults

Language is on the left side

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38

Lateralization in children under 4

Language is on both sides

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39

What does play and routine teach?

Communication exchanges have predictable structures and others are responsive to your signals

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40

When does give and take play appear?

Between 5-9 months with preferred objects

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41

When does pretend play appear?

Between 11-13 months

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42

What is the relationship between cognitive development and language development?

Typically parallel, but not dependent on each other

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43

Responding joint attention

Follows caregiver's gesture or eye gaze

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44

Initiating joint attention

Directs caregiver's attention with gesture or eye gaze

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45

Why would objects that are pointed to become words in a child's vocabulary?

The child is interested in and interacting with those objects

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46

Why does the amount of pointing predict future vocabulary size?

More pointing leads to more opportunities for learning vocabulary

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47

Maxim of quality

Speak truthfully

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48

Maxim of quantity

Don't say too much or too little

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49

Maxim of relation

Be relevant

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50

Maxim of manner

Be brief, orderly, and unambiguous

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51

McGurk effect

Audial input and visual input are often equally important for understanding

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52

Language and socioeconomic class

In higher-income houses, children are talked to more

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53

Sensorimotor intelligence at around 18-24 months

Object permanence, schema relating to objects, spatial relationships, means-end understanding, causality, imitation

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54

Object permanence

Understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they are not immediately present

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55

Schemas for relating objects

The ability to perform specific actions habitually on a variety of objects

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56

Spatial relationships

Understanding an object's position in space and how objects relate to one another

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57

Means-end understanding

Separate problem solving process from problem solving goal

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58

Causality

Anticipate what consequences will follow certain actions

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59

Imitation

Performance of a response that matches or approximates a modeled behavior

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60

Why are gestures correlated with future vocabulary and syntax?

Gestures allow room for syntactic constructions

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61

Will children with hearing loss transition from gestures to vocalizations?

No, they will continue using gesture

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