Unit 3 Gradesavers

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Culture

1 / 67

Tags and Description

Geography

9th

68 Terms

1

Culture

a particular group's material characteristics, behavioral patterns, beliefs, social norms, and attitudes that are shared and transmitted

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2

Cultural Traits

The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language and religion.

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3

Cultural Complex

a series of interrelated traits such as the process of steps and acceptable behaviors related to greeting a person in different cultures

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4

Cultural Hearth

the area in which a unique culture or a specific trait develops

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5

Taboos

behaviors heavily discouraged by a culture

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6

Folk Culture

the beliefs and practices of small, homogenous groups of people

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7

Popular Culture

culture that is not tied to a specific location but rather a general location based on widespread diffusion (ex: music, sports)

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8

Global Culture

Cultural traits that are spread and adopted worldwide

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9

Indigenous Community

When members of an ethnic group reside in their ancestral lands, and typically possess unique cultural traits

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10

Urbanization

the process by which people live and are employed in a city

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11

Globalization

increasing connection of economic, cultural, and political characteristics across the world.

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12

Material Culture

tangible things, or those that can be experienced by the senses such as art, food, and music.

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13

Artifacts

An object that is man-made and represents a certain culture

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14

Mentifacts

concepts that don't have a physical presence that are apart of a certain culture

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15

Nonmaterial Culture

anything on the landscape that comprises culture that cannot be physically touched (ex: religion)

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16

Sociofacts

ways people organize their society and relate to one another

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17

Architecture

the look of housing, affected by the availability of materials, the environment the house is in, and the popular culture at the time.

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18

Cultural Landscape

human imprint on the environment that shows the visible reflection of culture

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19

Traditional Architecture

reflects a local culture's history, beliefs, values, and community adaptations to the environment and typically utilizes locally available materials

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20

Postmodern Architecture

a movement away from boxy, mostly concrete or brick structures toward high rise structures made from large amounts of steel and glass siding

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21

Land-Use Patterns

complex interaction between humans and the physical environment

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22

Linguistic Characteristics

a related set of cultural traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity.

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23

Gender

the differences between men and women in cultures

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24

Religion

a strong belief in a supernatural power(s) that control human destiny

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25

Ethnic Neighborhood

an area where culturally distinct communities maintain their way of life, seperate from larger communities.

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26

Diaspora

when one group of people is dispersed to various locations

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27

Christianity

A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.

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28

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

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29

Buddhism

a widespread Asian religion or philosophy, founded by Siddartha Gautama in northeastern India in the 5th century bc.

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30

Sikhism

a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak.

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31

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

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32

Judaism

A religion with a belief in one god. Followers believe that the Torah expresses divine will. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people.

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33

Sequent Occupancy

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

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34

Cultural Relativism

understanding a culture on its own terms rather than judging it by the standards or customs of one's own culture

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35

Ethnocentrism

belief that one's own culture group is more important and superior to other cultures

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36

Ethnicity

membership in a group of people who share characteristics such as ancestry, language, customs, history, and common experiences

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37

Sense of Place

emotive bonds and attachments people develop or experience in particular locations

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38

Placemaking

way to strengthen the connection between people and the places they share

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39

Centripetal Force

unifies a group of people or region

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40

Centrifugal Force

divides a group of people or region

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41

Relocation Diffusion

spread of culture and/or cultural traits by people who migrate and carry their cultural traits with them

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42

Expansion Diffusion

the spread of cultural traits outward through exchange without migration

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43

Contagious Diffusion

when a cultural trait spreads continuously outward from its hearth through contact among people

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44

Hierarchical Diffusion

spread of culture outward from the most interconnected places or from centers of wealth and influence

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45

Reverse Hierarchical Diffusion

when a trait diffuses from a lower class to a higher class

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46

Stimulus Diffusion

when an underlying idea from a culture hearth is adopted by another culture, but the adopting group modifies or rejects one trait

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47

Creolization

the process in which two or more languages converge and form a new language

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48

Lingua Franca

a common language used by people who do not share the same native language (ex: English)

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49

Colonialism

a type of imperialism in which people move into and settle on the land of another country

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50

Imperialism

broader concept that includes a variety of ways of influencing another country or group of people by direct conquest, economic control, or cultural dominance

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51

indigenous Language

a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people

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52

Social Constructs

ideas, concepts, or perceptions that have been created and accepted by people in a society or social group and are not created by nature

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53

Time-Space Convergence

the greater interconnection between places that results from improvements in transportation

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54

Cultural Convergence

when two or more cultures influence each other and become similar with increased contact

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55

Cultural Divergence

the idea that a culture may change over time as the elements of distance, time, physical separation, and modern technology create divisions and changes

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56

Language Family

a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

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57

Dialect

variations in accent, grammar, usage, and spelling

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58

Isogloss

boundaries between variations in pronunciations or word usage

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59

Indo-European Language Family

large language family that includes all European, Indian, and Iranian languages that might have descended from a language spoken around 6,000 years ago

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60

Universalizing Religion

actively seeks converts to its faith regardless of their ethnic backgrounds

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61

Ethnic Religion

belief traditions that emphasize strong cultural characteristics among their followers

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62

Polytheistic

believing in many gods

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63

Monotheistic

believing in one god

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64

Acculturation

The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.

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65

Assimilation

when one ethnic group can no longer be distinguished from the receiving group

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66

Syncretism

fusion or blending of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique hybrid trait

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67

Multiculturalism

the coexistence of several cultures in one society, with the ideal of all cultures being valued and worthy of study

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68

Nativism

the policy of protecting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.

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