AP Psychology - Vocabulary 16

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psychological disorder

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52 Terms

1

psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

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2

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

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3

medical model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, it assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital

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4

DSM-IV(-TR)

the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated text revision, most recent is fifth edition

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5

anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

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6

generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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7

panic disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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8

phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

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9

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions

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10

post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

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11

dissociative disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

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12

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder

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13

mood disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

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14

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

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15

mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

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16

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic-depressive disorder)

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17

schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

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18

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

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19

personality disorder

psychological disorder characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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20

antisocial personality disorder

personality disorder in which the person, usually a man, exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

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21

autism

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind

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22

Alzheimer's disease

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning

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23

paranoid schizophrenia

preoccupations with delusions or hallucinations: often with themes of persecution or grandiosity

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24

disorganized schizophrenia

disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

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25

catatonic schizophrenia

immobility or excessive, purposeless movement, extreme negativism, and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements

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26

undifferentiated schizophrenia

many and varied symptoms

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27

residual schizophrenia

withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusion have disappeared

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28

histrionic personality disorder

displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain other's praise and reassurance

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29

narcissistic personality disorder

exaggerate one's own importance, aided by success fantasies; find criticism hard to accept, often reacting with rage or shame

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30

borderline personality

unstable identity, relationships, and emotions; the hardest to accurately diagnose

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31

dependent personality

an excessive need to be taken care of, fear of separation, and clinging behavior

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32

neurotic disorder

an old term for any distressing behavior that allows one to think rationally and function socially

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33

psychotic disorder

an old term for losing contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

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34

lithium

a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for mood swings to bipolar disorders

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35

psychogenic fugue

a dissociative disorder where a person loses all sense of identity, wanders away, and establishes a new life

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36

splitting

failure to integrate positive and negative aspects of another's behavior into a coherent whole

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37

culture-bound syndrome

recurrent, locally-specific patterns of aberrant behavior that may or may not be linked to a particular DSM-IV diagnostic category

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38

amok

a dissociative episode in Malaysia characterized by a period of brooding followed by an outburst of violent behavior

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39

ghost sickness

a preoccupation with death and the deceased among Native Americans. Bad dreams, dizziness, weakness, and feelings of futility

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40

zar

in North Africa and the Middle East an experience of spirit possession where the person develops a relationship with the spirit. Withdrawal and apathy

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41

Asperger's disorder

impairment in social interaction

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42

somatoform disorders

physical complaints without a neurological explanation for the problem

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43

factitious disorders

a psychological need to assume a sick role

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44

malingering

falsifying symptoms to avoid responsibility

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45

impulse control disorder

failure to resist destructive behavior

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46

kleptomania

failure to resist stealing

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47

pyromania

failure to resist setting fire

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48

pathological gambling

persistent maladaptive gambling behavior

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49

trichollomania

recurrent pulling out of one's hair

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50

multiaxial assessment

Axis I: clinical disorders; Axis II: personality disorders; Axis III: General medical conditions; Axis IV: Psychosocial & environmental problems; Axis V: global assessment of functioning

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51

narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption

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52

paraphilias

sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons

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