Juv Just Exam #2

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substance abuse

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Tags and Description

57 Terms

1

substance abuse

using drugs/alcohol to cause physical, emotional, or psychological harm to yourself

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2

addiction

inability to stop using drugs or loss of control

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3

D.A.R.E.

Drug Abuse Resistance Education, education program that seeks to prevent use of controlled drugs, membership in gangs, and violent behavior (proven ineffective)

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4

anesthetic drugs

central nervous system depressants

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5

gateway drug

substance that leads to the use of more serious drugs; alcohol use has long been thought to lead to more serious drug abuse

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6

urbanization

refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change

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7

parens patriae

power of the state to act on behalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent

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8

House of Refuge

care facility developed by the Child Savers to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the streets and providing a family-like environment

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9

adjudicatory hearing

the fact-finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition

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10

petition

document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent, a status offender, or a dependent and asking that the court assume jurisdiction over the juvenile

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11

drug courts

courts whose focus is to provide treatment for youths accused of drug-related acts

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12

community policing

police strategy that emphasizes reducing fear, organizing the community, and maintaining order rather than fighting crime

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13

problem-oriented policing

law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents only

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14

drug abuse

the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs

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15

psychoactive drug

of or relating to a substance having a profound or significant effect on mental processes

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16

delinquency control/repression

programs that focus on improving the general well-being of individuals through such measures as access to health care services and general prevention education

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17

designer drugs

lab-made drugs designed to avoid existing drug laws

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18

harm reduction

efforts to minimize the harmful effects caused by drug use

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19

guardian ad litem

court-appointed attorney who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare

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20

Child Saving (Savers) Movement

nineteenth-century reformers who develiped programs for troubled and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than their welfare

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21

court-appointed special advocate

national association in the United States that supports and promotes court-appointed advocates for abused or neglected children. CASA are volunteers from the community who complete training that has been provided by the state or local CASA office

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22

detention review hearing

periodic meetings to determine whether the conditions of the case plan for an abused child are being met by the parents or guardians of the child

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23

wilderness programs

programs involving outdoor expeditions that provide opportunities for juveniles to confront the difficulties of their lives while achieving positive personal satisfaction (usually not effective, leaves juvenile w/ PTSD)

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24

school resource officers (SROs)

sworn law enforcement officers responsible for safety and crime prevention in schools

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25

disposition hearing

social service agency presents its case plan and recommendations for care of the child and treatment for the parents, including incarceration and counseling or other treatment

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26

preliminary hearing

initial hearing at which the court reviews the complaint with the child and makes a determination whether the child should be held in detention

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27

search & seizure

procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime

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28

intensive supervision

immediate sanctions that involve increased surveillance of juvenile in the community who have committed an offense

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29

house arrest

an offender is required to stay at home during specified periods of time; monitoring is done by random phone calls and visits or by electronic devices

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30

restorative justice

using humanistic, nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony

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31

restitution

full or partial compensation for loss paid by a criminal to a victim that is ordered as part of a criminal sentence or as a condition of probation

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32

aftercare

transitional assistance to juveniles, equivalent to adult parole, to help youths adjust to community life

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33

reentry

process and experience of returning to society upon release from a custody facility postadjudication

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34

S.A.R.A model

scanning, analysis, response, and assessment; this model has become the basis for many police agencies' training curricula and problem-solving efforts

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35

discretion

use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system, such as deciding whether to make an arrest or when to accept a plea bargain

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36

disposition

for juveniles, the equivalent of sentencing for adult offenders; howeverm, juvenile dispositions should be more rehabilitative than retributive

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37

OJJDP

branch of the US Justice Dept. charged w/ shaping national juvenile justice policy through disbursement of federal aid and research funds

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38

juvenile officers

police officers who specialize in dealing w/ juvenile offenders; they may operate alone or as part of a juvenile police unit w/ in the dept.

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39

boot camps

juvenile programs that combine get-tough elements from adult programs w/ education, substance abuse treatment, and social skills training

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40

Miranda Warning

Supreme Court decisions require police officers to inform individuals of their constitutional rights when under arrest; warning must also be given when suspicion begins to focus on an individual accusatory stage

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41

in re winship

proof beyond reasonable doubt is necessary for conviction in juvenile hearings

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42

in re gualt

due process clause of the 14th Amendment applies to juvenile defendants as well as to adult defendants

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43

marijuana

dried leaves of the cannabis plant

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44

cocaine

powerful natural stimulant derived from the coca plant

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45

alcohol

fermented or distilled liquids containing ethanol, an intoxicating substance

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46

heroin

narcotic made from opium and then cut w/ sugar or some other neutral substance until it is only 1-4% pure

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47

trends in teenage drug use

-most commonly used is alcohol -25.6% of 8th graders have abused alcohol at least once -61.5% of teens have abused alcohol by 12th grade -9.15% of all 12- to 17-year-olds used alcohol in the last month -2.7% of 12th graders drink daily -16.8% of 12th graders have 5+ drinks in a row when consuming alcohol -0.4% of 8th graders drink daily; by 10th grade, 1.0% drink daily -407,000 teenagers aged 12- to 17-years-old met the criteria for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) in the last year -4,777 Americans aged 15 to 24 years old died of an overdose of illicit drugs in one year -11.2% of overdose deaths are aged 15 to 24 years

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48

reasons for juvenile drug use

-to look "cool" -parental use & abuse -peer pressure -cope w/ daily strains/struggles -curiousity, experimentation

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49

theories for juvenile drug use

-social disorganization: poverty, growing up in a disorganized & urban environment -family factors: poor family/bad homelife, harsh punishment/neglect & abuse -genetic factors: low self-control inherited by parents -emotional problems: strain, blaming others for problems, feelings of inadecuacy -problem behavior syndrome: manifestations of low self-control, biosocial factors -rational choice: weighing the pros & cons

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50

drug control strategies

-source control & cutting off suppliers, enforcing stricter drug laws, targeting dealers and drug traffickers, border control -education programs: inform juveniles about drug dangers & how to resist peer pressure -community programs: emphasize involvement & engagement of youth in prosocial activities like after school programs, counseling, clubs/athletics

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51

delinquency prevention: -definitions -history -examples

-definition: efforts to keep juveniles from entering a delinquent & criminal lifestyle -history: Child Savers keep youths off streets in House of Refuge, rehabilitative strategies. OJJDP in 1974, federally funded through diff streams, state comply w/ rules set forth by the OJJDP. 1st juvenile court in urban Chicago (Cook County), 1899. in 1905 more states start to comply w/ juvenile policies, 1908 Healy takes over Juvenile Psychopathic Institute. by 1915 46 states adopt policies. Chicago Area Project: Chicago Area Project is an American juvenile delinquency prevention association based in Chicago, Illinois. The association has been acting since early 20th century. The project was founded by University of Chicago criminologist Clifford Shaw -examples: early prevention in preschools/daycare/home visits, after-school programs, job training

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52

JJS history

-House of Refuge, mid-1800s -late 1800s did not want to place children w/ adults so created Cook County Juvenile Court -OJJDP in 1974, federally funded through diff streams, provide rules and policies for juvenile courts in each state

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53

JJS today

-jurisdiction in 2 categories: deliquents & status offenders -also jurisdiction in parental neglect, deprivation, abandonment, & abuse -most states & DC include juveniles under the age of 18 (some 15 or 16) -certain offenses like rape & murder can go to adult system

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54

police work w/ juveniles: -Sir Robert Peel -missions/strategies -organization/structure -evolution -police roles/discretion

-Sir Robert Peel: "police are for the people and the people are for the police" -missions/strats: deter juveniles from crime, rehabilitate if need, enforce prosocial acts -evolution: children used to be treated the same as adults they were starting to be treated as their own group, officers are now assigned to juvenile groups -police roles/discretion: roles; communicative, general patrol experience, desire to work w/ children, knowledgeable of juvenile law. discretion; take age, race, gender, location, offense seriousness, prior record, demeanor, & parental involvement into account when handling juvenile

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55

juvenile courts: -similar to adult -different than adult -courtroom actors

-similar: same consitutional rights, actors like judge/prosecutor/defense attorney present -different: no jury, not public, child (defendant) does not have to always be physically present during trial processes, different terms for court stages, guardian/parent is present on behalf of child

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56

juvenile courts cont: -process from police -> "trial" -youth transfers to adult court -sentencing

-process: (1) delinquent behavior, (2) referral, (3) intake/​diversion, (4) transfer/​waiver, (5) detention, (6) adjudication, (7) disposition, (8) juvenile corrections and (9) aftercare & reentry -transfers: offense may be serious enough for an adult sentence, prior record may indicate a pattern of reoffending regardless of juvenile rehab, age might be an influencing factor -sentencing: cannot receive death penalty, usually receive a form of probation or house arrest, more rehabilitative than punishing

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57

gender differences in corrections

-female status offenders singled out for harsh protectionist treatment, while male criminal offenders receive harsher, more punitive sentences

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