# Option B: Engineering Physics

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Torque

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### 10 Terms

1

Torque

Torque measures the rotational effect of a force acting on an object. Calculation:τ=r×F, where r is the moment arm and F is the force.

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2

Moment of Inertia

Moment of inertia (I) resists rotational acceleration. Calculation:I=∑miri^2. It depends on mass distribution relative to the axis of rotation.

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3

Rotational Equilibrium

Rotational equilibrium occurs when the net torque acting on an object is zero, keeping it stationary or rotating at a constant angular velocity.

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4

Angular Acceleration

Angular acceleration (α) describes how quickly the rotational speed of an object changes over time. Calculation:α= Δω/Δt.

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5

Equations of Rotational Motion

Equations describe the relationship between angular displacement, velocities, acceleration, and time for rotating objects.

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6

Newton’s Second Law for Angular Motion

Net torque is proportional to the rate of change of angular momentum. τ=Iα.

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7

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Total angular momentum remains constant when no external torques act. L_initial = L_final.

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8

Rotational Kinetic Energy

Energy associated with the rotational motion of an object. Calculation:KErot = (½)Iω^2.

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9

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy is conserved, and it can only change forms in an isolated system. Q=ΔU+W.

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10

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Total entropy tends to increase over time in an isolated system, leading to higher disorder.

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