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Physics

Geometric Optics

IB Physics (HL)

Measurements and mathematical foundations

engineering physics

ib engineering physics

torque

moment of inertia

ib physics

rotational equilibrium

translational equilibrium

angular acceleration

rotational motion

uniform angular acceleration

newton's second law

conservation of angular momentum

rotational kinetic energy

thermodynamics

1st law of thermodynamics

second law of thermodynamics

entropy

cyclic processes

pv diagrams

isovolumetric

isobaric

isothermal

adiabiatic processes

carnot cycle

thermal efficiency

University/Undergrad

1

Torque

Torque measures the rotational effect of a force acting on an object. Calculation:τ=r×F, where r is the moment arm and F is the force.

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2

Moment of Inertia

Moment of inertia (I) resists rotational acceleration. Calculation:I=∑miri^2. It depends on mass distribution relative to the axis of rotation.

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3

Rotational Equilibrium

Rotational equilibrium occurs when the net torque acting on an object is zero, keeping it stationary or rotating at a constant angular velocity.

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4

Angular Acceleration

Angular acceleration (α) describes how quickly the rotational speed of an object changes over time. Calculation:α= Δω/Δt.

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5

Equations of Rotational Motion

Equations describe the relationship between angular displacement, velocities, acceleration, and time for rotating objects.

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6

Newton’s Second Law for Angular Motion

Net torque is proportional to the rate of change of angular momentum. τ=Iα.

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7

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Total angular momentum remains constant when no external torques act. L_initial = L_final.

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8

Rotational Kinetic Energy

Energy associated with the rotational motion of an object. Calculation:KErot = (½)Iω^2.

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9

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy is conserved, and it can only change forms in an isolated system. Q=ΔU+W.

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10

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Total entropy tends to increase over time in an isolated system, leading to higher disorder.

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