AP Psych Unit 1 - Scientific Foundations of Psychology

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Behavior

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68 Terms

1

Behavior

observable human actions

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Mind

underlying sensations, emotions, memories, and other phenomena that are not observable

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Brain

the physiological command center of the central nervous system

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4

Rene Descartes

Associated w/ dualism

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Dualism

the world is made up of two things, spirit and body

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John Locke

associated w/ empiricism and tabula rasa

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Empiricism

one learns about the world through their own experiences and observations

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Tabula rasa

(“blank slate”) - babies are born as a blank slate, nurture over nature

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Thomas Hobbes

associated w/ materialism

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materialism

the only things humans are made of is matter and energy; consciousness is just a byproduct of the brain’s physiological function

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Charles Darwin

associated w/ evolutionary theory

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evolutionary theory

explained psychological differences between species

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Natural selection

proposed that advantageous characteristics passed on through generations

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Wilhelm Wundt

daddy of psychology, introduced a lab that made psychology an actual science (differentiated it from philosophy)

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Edward Titchener

associated w/ structuralism and introspection

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structuralism

studied psychology via the structure and elements of the mind, valued it over function

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Introspection

the technique that structuralism used, People self-reported their thoughts and experiences

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William james

associated w/ functionalism

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Functionalism

the purpose of the mind (and how the mind fulfills that purpose) is most important, opposing structuralism

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Dorothea Dix

advocated for mentally ill poor people

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Mary Whiton Calkins

first female grad student of psychology

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Margaret Floy Washburn

first female psychology PhD, second APA president

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G. Stanley Hall

first APA president

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Biological Approach

Studies intersections between anatomy, physiology, and behaviors, applies biological experiments to psychology problems

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Biogenetic Approach

How behaviors attribute to genetic characteristics

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Behavioralism Approach

Study of observable behavior

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Operant Conditioning

people associate behavior with an outcome (positive or negative) and thus choose to repeat the behavior

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Classical Conditioning

behavior is elicited by a stimulus, which then becomes associated with the behavior

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BF Skinner

associated w/ operant conditioning

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Ivan Pavlov

associated w/ classical conditioning

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Cognitive approach

studying how people think

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Humanistic Approach

Emphasizes free will and consciousness, as well as optimistic growth. How does self esteem and personal values influence behavior?

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Abraham Maslow

associated w/ self-actualization and hierarchy of needs

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

physiological needs —> safety needs —> love and belonging —> esteem —> self-actualization

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self actualization

accepting one’s self and environment as it naturally is, is one’s full potential and must be achieved after achieving all other basic needs (contentment)

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Carl rogers

associated w/ unconditional positive regard

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unconditional positive regard

Having a positive self-concept and self-esteem

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Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic approach

Studying the unconscious mind and recovering repressed information, early childhood experiences and relations with parents are important to development; associated w/ repression and unconcious

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Sigmund freud

associated w/ psychoanalytic theory

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Psychanalytic theory

human behavior is influenced by unconscious memories, thoughts, and urges

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Conscious

State of mind that we have ready access to

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Unconscious

State of mind we don’t have access to but affects behavior

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Repression

Unconscious conflicts that have been suppressed to avoid confrontation

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Sociocultural approach

Observing the culture and environment one lives in

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Evolutionary approach

Examining behavior as how adaptive and advantageous it is to survival

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Biopsychosocial approach

Intersections of biology, psychology, and social factors to explain a behavior

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Biological Domain

How factors impact the body

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Social domain

How one interacts with others

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Clinical domain

Considering treatment options

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Cognitive Domain

What thoughts people have

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Counseling Domain

Talk therapy and other counseling based treatment

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Developmental Domain

How psychology is affected/affects by growth and development

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Educational Domain

school involvement in psychology

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Experimental Domain

Dealing with experiments

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industrial-organizational domain

Workplace psychology

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Personality domain

personality psychology

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Psychometric domain

How to measure things in psychology

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Positive domain

positive strengths of human behavior

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Confounding Variable

An extraneous unstudied factor that impacts research

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Surveys

Questionnares that gather data on what people think and do

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