GN 301 Module 2: Cell Cycle and Chromosomes

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cytoplasmic division

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34 Terms

1

cytoplasmic division

The ________ of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.

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2

Colchicine does…

________ destroy spindle fibers in a cell so the view of chromosomes is unobstructed.

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3

Cells

________ accomplish much of their growth, growing larger and making proteins and organelles needed for DNA synthesis.

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4

DNA

The cell synthesizes a copy of the ________ in its nucleus.

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5

Karyotypes

________ can show whether an individual has a genetic disorder based on the appearance or absence of chromosomes.

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6

Define

________: an organized array of a cells chromosomes.

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7

centromere

During anaphase, there are two chromatids on the ________.

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8

Chromosome parts

A chromosome is 15% DNA, 10% RNA and 75% Protein

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9

Homologous Chromosomes have the same

length, centromere, position, banding pattern, and genetic loci

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10

Define

an organized array of a cells chromosomes

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11

Autosomes

non-sex chromosomes

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12

Sex Chromosomes

X or Y chromosomes

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13

Describe arrangement in karyotype

homologous chromosomes are matched together

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14

Purpose

to use fluorescent DNA probes to target specific chromosomal locations within the nucleus, resulting in colored signals that can be detected using a fluorescent microscope

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15

Chromosome parts

A chromosome is 15% DNA, 10% RNA and 75% Protein

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16

centromere positions

Metacentric, Acrocentric, Telocentric

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17

Metacentric

centromere is in the middle

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18

acrocentric

centromere is slightly off center

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19

telocentric

centromere is at the top of the chromosome

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20

G1

Gap 1. Cells accomplish much of their growth, growing larger and making proteins and organelles needed for DNA synthesis.

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21

S phase

The cell synthesizes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

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22

G2

Gap 2. The cell grows more as it makes more proteins and organelles, reorganizing its contents in

preparation for mitosis.

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23

M

M-phase. Nuclear division (mitosis) followed by cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)

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24

Cytokinesis

The cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.

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25

Interphase

G1 + S + G2

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26

When is there one chromatid and when are there 2 chromatids (sister chromatids) on the centromere?

During anaphase, there are two chromatids on the centromere. During Telophase, there is just one chromatid on the centromere.

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27

Homologous Chromosomes

have the same: length, centromere, position, banding pattern, and genetic loci.

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28

Karyotype

an organized array of a cell’s chromosomes

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29

autosome

non-sex chromosomes

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30

sex chromosomes

X or Y chromosomes

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31

Describe arrangement in karyotype

homologous chromosomes are matched together

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32

Colchicine

destroys spindle fibers in a cell so the view of chromosomes is unobstructed

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33

Hypotonic Salt solution

increases the cell volume

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34

Dropping cells from a height

splinters them apart by force, which reveals chromosomes

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