UNIT 2 BM VOCAB

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Human resource management (HRM)

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

117 Terms

1

Human resource management (HRM)

the strategy approach to the effective management of an organization’s workers so that they help the business achieve its objectives and gain a competitive advantage

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2

Human resource or workforce planning

analyzing and forecasting the numbers of workers and the skills of those workers that will be required by the organization to achieve its objectives

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3

Human resource or workforce plan

numbers of workers and skills of those workers required over a future time period

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4

Workforce audit

a check on the skills and qualifications of all existing employees

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5

Labour turnover

measures the rate at which employees are leaving the business

(number of employees leaving an organization/average number of people employed) x 100

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6

Performance management

Continous process involving the planning, reviewing and mentoring of employees in order to enhance their performance at work.

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7

Employee appraisal

the formal process of assessing the effectiveness of an employee judged against preset objectives.

Types of appraisal:

  • Formative: Gather feedback that can be used by the supervisor and the employees to guide improvement in the ongoing work being undertaken by the workers

  • Summative: Measure the level of an employee’s success or proficiency in meeting predetermined benchmarks

  • 360° degree feedback: “All round” appraisal

  • Self appraisal

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8

Workforce

Number of employees at any point in time for a particular organization. Often used to measure the size of a business.

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9

Mobility of labor

  • Occupational mobility of labour: extent to which workers are willing and able to move to different jobs requiring different skills

  • Geographical mobility of labour: extent to which workers are willing and able to move geographical region to take up new regions

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10

Contract of employment

a legal document that sets out the terms and conditions governing a worker’s job

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11

Flexible work patterns

The trend in using less core staff and more peripheral workers and subcontractors to improve the flexibility and productivity of the workforce.

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12

Gross misconduct

Major misdemeanours, such as theft, fraud, endagering others or being drunk at work. Such acts can lead to instant dismissal.

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13

Dismissal

being removed from a job due to incompetence or breach of discipline

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14

Unfair dismissal

ending a worker’s employment contract for a reason that the law regards as unfair

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15

Redundancy

when a job is no longer required so the employee doing this job becomes redundant through no fault of his or her own

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16

Redeployment

Transferring a staff member from a department or branch that no longer requires his/her services to other areas of the business where a vancancy exists.

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17

Recruitment

process of identifying the need for a new employee, defining the job to be filled and the type of person needed to fill it, attracting suitable candidates for the job and selecting the best one → Takes time and money

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18

Internal recruitment

Practice of hiring people who already work for the firm to fill a position, rather than employing someone new to the organization

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19

External recruitment

Involving hiring staff from outside the organization to fill vacant posts

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20

Shortlisting

Process of sifting through applications to identify suitable candidates for a job. It is the stage that precedes the interview in the recruitment process.

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21

Job analysis

Part of the recruitment process that involves scrutinizing the different components of a job to determine what it entails.

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Job description

Document that outlines the nature of a particular job (roles, tasks and responsibilities). It is used for the recruitment and performance appraisal of employees.

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Person specification

Document that gives the profile of the ideal candidate for a job, such as their skills, qualifications and experience.

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24

Training

work-related education to increase workforce skills and efficiency

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Induction training

introductory training programme to familiarize new recruits with the systems used in the business and the layout of the business site

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On-the job training

instruction at the place of work on how a job should be carried out

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27

Off-the job training

all training undertaken away from the business

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Cognitive training

exercises designed to improve a person’s ability to understand and learn information

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Behavioral skills training

is designed to improve an individual’s ability to communicate and interact with others both inside and external to the organization

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Mentoring

Type of on-the-job training involving a partnership between a mentor and a mentee to help the mentee gain and develop specific skills and knowledge

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31

Part-time contract

employment contract that is for less than the normal full working week of 40 hours

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Flexible hours contract/Flexi-time contract

employment contract that allows staff to be called in at times most convenient to employers and employees (some jobs are given an objective instead of hours of work)

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Permanent employment contract

employement contract with no time limit

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34

Temporary employment contract

employment contract that lasts for a fixed period of time

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35

Homoffice/Teleworking

staff working from home but keeping contact with the office by means of modern IT communications

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36

Portfolio working

the working pattern of following several simultaneous employments at any one time (such as freelance editors and management consultants)

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Core employee

Permanent and full time employees

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38

Peripheral employees

Temporary, part-time and self-employed employees

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39

Outsourcing

Using another business (a third party) to undertake a part of the production process rather than doing it within the business using the firm’s own employees.

Common outsourced functions: Employee recruitment, training and development, human resources information systems, etc.

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40

Offshoring

the relocation of a business process done in one country to the same or another company in another country

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41

Re-shoring (in-shoring)

reversal of offshoring; the transfer of a business process or operation back to its country of origin

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42

Hard HRM

an approach to managing staff that focuses on cutting costs (eg. using temporary and part-time employment contracts, etc.)

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43

Soft HRM

an approach to managing staff that focused on developing staff so that they reach self-fulfillment and are motivated to work hard and stay with the business

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44

Organizational structure

the internal, formal framework of a business that shows the way in which management is organized and linked together and how authority is passed through the organization (Framework/representation of how the roles are split in an organization)

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45

Level of hierarchy

a stage of the organizational structure at which the personnel on it have equal status and authority

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Tall (vertical) structure

one with many levels of hierarchy and, usually, narrow spans of control

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Flat (horizontal) structure

one with few levels of hierarchy and wide spans of control

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48

Span of control

the number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager

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49

Chain of command

this is the route through which authority is passed down an organization - from the chief executive and the board of directors

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50

Delegation

passing authority down the organizational hierarchy

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Accountability

the obligation of an individual to account for his or her activities and to disclose results transparently

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52

Delayering

removal of one or more of the levels of hierarchy from an organisational structure → Relocate or dismiss your employees

Layers: represents a level of responsibility and delegation in a business

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53

Bureaucracy

an organizational system with standardized procedures and rules

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54

Centralization

keeping all the important decision – making powers within head office or the center of the organization

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Decentralization

decision – making powers are passed down the organization to empower subordinates and regional/product managers

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56

Hierarchical structure

a structure in which power and responsibility are clearly specified and allocated to individuals according to their standing or position in the hierarchy

Businesses can also be organized:

  • By product

  • By function

  • By region

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57

Matrix organizational structure

An organizational structure that creates project teams that cut across traditional functional departments

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58

Horizontally linked structure

Found in the IT sectors. Employees are grouped by function into three areas: planning, building and running. Allows companies to respond quickly to changing market conditions and technological advances

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59

Shamnock’s organizational structure

Charles Handy’s model for organization made up by:

Core workers: full time, permanent contracts with competitive salaries and benefits (strategists, knowledge and core processes)

Outsourced functions: by independent provider (IT or management information system, marketing, payroll, training, franchising)

Flexible workers: temporary and part-time contracts (contractors and consultants)

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60

Responsibility

Who is in charge of whom and in what role or capacity.

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61

Organization chart

Diagrammatic representation of a firm’s formal structure.

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62

Project-based organization

Organizes human resources around particular projects, each led by a project managers. Allows increased flexibility to adjust quickly to market changes and to adopt rapid innovations.

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Communication

Transfer of information from one party to another. The objectives of communication include: to instruct, clarify, interpret, notify, warn, receive feedback, review and inform.

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Feedback

The response to a message by a receiver

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65

Intranet

internal computer networks built on internet technologies

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66

Information overload

so much information and so many messages are received that the most important ones cannot be easily identified and quickly acted on - most likely to occur with electronic media

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67

Management

practice of achieving an organization’s objectives by effectively using and controlling the available human and non-human resources.

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Mintzberg’s management roles

Interpersonal: figurehead, leader, liason

  • dealing with and motivating staff at all levels of the organisation

Informational: monitor (reciever), disseminator, spokesperson

  • acting as a source, receiver and transmitter of information

Decisional: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

  • taking decisions and allocating resources to meet the organisation’s objectives

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69

Leadership

the art of motivating a group of people towards achieving a common objective

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70

Functions of management

Roles of managers are planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling of business operations.

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71

Leadership style

The way in which leaders tend to function, such as in an autocratic, paternalistic, democratic, situational or laissez-faire manner.

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72

Autocratic leadership

a style of leadership that keeps all decision-making at the center of the organization

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Paternalistic leadership

a type of fatherly style typically used by dominant males where their power is used to control and protect subordinate employees who are expected to be loyal and obedient

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74

Democratic leadership

a leadership style that promotes the active participation of workers in taking decisions

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75

Laissez-faire leadership

a leadership style that leaves much of the business decision-making to the workforce – a “hands-off” approach and the reverse of the autocratic style

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76

Situational leadership

effective leadership varies with the task in hand, and situational leaders adapt their leadership style to each situation Very complex and most difficult skill

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77

Motivation

the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that stimulate people to take actions that lead to achieving a goal

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78

Extrinsic motivation

comes from external rewards associated with working on a task, for example pay and other benefits

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79

Intrinsic motivation

comes from the satisfaction derived from working on and completing a task

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80

Herzberg and the “two-factor theory”

Motivating factors (motivators): aspects of a worker’s job that can lead to positive job satisfaction, such as achievement, recognition, meaningful and interesting work and advancement at work

Hygiene factors: aspects of a worker’s job that have the potential to cause dissatisfaction, such as pay, working conditions, status and over-supervision by managers

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81

Renumeration

Means the overall package of pay and benefits offered to an employee

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82

Productivity

Measure the level of output per worker. It is an indicator of motivation as employees tend to be more productive with increased levels of motivation.

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83

Empowerment

allowing workers some degree of control over how the task should be undertaken and the resources needed to complete it

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84

Fringe payments/perks

The financial rewards paid in addition to a worker’s wages or salaries

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85

Job enlargement

attempting to increase the scope of a job by broadening or deepening the tasks undertaken

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86

Job enrichment

attempting to motivate employees by giving them opportunities to use the full range of their abilities.

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Job rotation

the practice of moving employees between different tasks to promote experience and variety

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Team working

production is organized so that groups of workers undertake complete units of work

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Outlines 5 levels of needs: physical, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation.

Lower order needs must be met before people progress up the hierarchy.

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90

Pink’s drive theory

Suggests that people in moderns societies are motivated by 3 key elements of instrinsic motivation

  • Autonomy

  • Mastery

  • Purpose

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91

Scientific management

Developed by FW Taylor, suggests that specialization and vision of labour help to increase the level of productivity. This is especially the case if pay is linked to a piece-rate reward system.

Theory of economic man: states that humans were driven or motivated by money alone and the only factor that could stimulate further effort was the chase of earning extra money

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92

Salary

annual income that is usually paid on a monthly basis

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93

Time rate

Payment system that rewards staff for the time that they put into work. It is expressed per period of time (e.g. $10 per hour)

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Piece rate

Payment system that rewards people based on the amount that they produce or sell. Thus, their pary is directly linked to their level of productivity.

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95

Performance-related pay (PRP)

Payment system that rewards people who meet set targets over a period of time. It is a bonus scheme to reward staff for above-average work performance.

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Commission

a payment to a sales person for each sale made

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97

Organisational (corporate) culture

the shared values, attitudes and beliefs of the people working in an organisation that control the way they interact with each other and with external stakeholder groups.

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Types of organisational culture

  • Power culture: concentrating power among a few people. (likely a flat organizational structure)

  • Role culture: each member of staff has a clearly defined job title and role.

  • Task culture: based on cooperation and teamwork.

  • Person culture: when individuals are given the freedom to express themselves and make decisions.

  • Entrepreneurial culture: encourages management and workers to take risks, to come up with new ideas and test out new business ventures.

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99

Culture clash

Exists when there is a conflict or incompatibility between two or more cultures within an organization

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Culture gap

Difference between the existing culture of an organization and its desired culture. Management strive to reduce this gap.

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