Social Studies Quarter 2 Test

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In the 1890s, who did the farmers blame for their troubles?

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1

In the 1890s, who did the farmers blame for their troubles?

Railroad Companies, Eastern Manufacturers, and Bankers

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2

Why did farmers blame the Railroad Companies for their troubles in the 1890s?

They charged farmers more to ship crops than they charged manufacturers to ship goods

  • "Took possession of the land"- Senator William A. Peffer of Kansas

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3

Why did farmers blame the Eastern Manufacturers for their troubles in the 1890s?

They charged high prices for their products

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4

Why did farmers blame the Bankers for their troubles in the 1890s?

They charged high interest rates to farmers when they borrowed money for seed, equipment, and other necessary items

  • "Took possession of the farmer"- Senator William A. Peffer of Kansas

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5

Near the end of the 19th Century, what was the National Grange?

organization, encouraged banding together, promoted economic/political well-being

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6

What did the National Grange offer?

They offered farmers education, fellowship, and support. Tried to encourage self-sufficiency for farmers. It set up "cash-only" cooperative stores where farmers bought products from each other In the 1870s, they tried to get railroad shipping rates to be cut for farmers. Many Midwestern states passed such laws, but by 1878, the laws were repealed because the railroads pressured the legislatures

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7

What did the National Grange provide?

They provided a library for inexperienced farmers with books on planting and livestock raising, and they organized social gatherings for lonely farm families.

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8

What did the National Grange try to encourage?

They tried to encourage self-sufficiency for farmers. It set up "cash-only" cooperative stores where farmers bought products from each other. In the 1870s, they tried to get railroad shipping rates to be cut for farmers.

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9

Near the end of the 19th century, what was the Farmer's Alliance?

Economic/Political movement of farmers, 1880s and 1890s, People's party/populists

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10

What plan did the Farmer's Alliance propose?

They proposed a plan in which the federal government would store farmers' crops in warehouses and lend money to farmers. When the crops were sold, the farmers would pay back the loans. It was hoped that this plan would reduce the power that railroads, banks, and merchants had over farmers. This plan would also offer farmers some federal protection.

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11

What did the Farmer's Alliance sponsor?

Sponsored education and cooperative buying and selling

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12

What kept the Farmer's Alliance apart?

Regional differences and personality clashes kept the alliance apart and destroyed what could've been a powerful force.

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13

Populist Party Origin

In 1890, the Farmers' alliance became active in political campaigns, and their candidates won 6 governorships, 3 seats in the U.S. Senate, and 50 seats in the house of Representatives. As a result of the success, alliance leaders worked to turn the alliance into a political party. In February 1890, Alliance members had founded the People's Party of the U.S.A. (Populist Party).

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14

Populist Party Goals and Support

Their goals were rooted in populism, or appeal to the common people, and they supported the views of the farmers and the common people.

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15

Populist Party Ideas

  • Claimed that the government, not private companies, should own the railroads and telegraph lines

  • Wanted to replace the government's gold-based currency system with a flexible currency system that was based on free silver, or the unlimited production of silver coins. They believed that putting more silver coins in the economy would give farmers more money to pay their debts

  • Promoted several political and labor reforms such as limiting the president and vice president to a single term, electing senators directly, and introducing the use of secret ballots

  • Called for shorter hours for workers and the creation of a national income tax that would tax higher earnings more heavily

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16

What is consolidation?

Consolidation is the practice of combining separate companies in an industry. Railroad expansion was accompanied by consolidation.

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17

Consolidation example

Large railroad companies bought smaller railroad companies or drove them out of business. Consolidation made large companies more efficient.

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18

In the late 1800s, what industries grew because railroads demanded their products?

Iron processing and mining industries, steel industry, lumber industry, and coal industry.

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19

Why did the iron processing and mining industries grow in the late 1800s?

At first, the demand for iron tracks and locomotives helped the iron mining and processing industries grow.

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20

Why did the steel industry grow in the late 1800s?

Around 1880, railroad companies began using tracks of steel- a strong metal made by adding carbon and other elements to refined iron. The use of steel in railroad tracks stimulated America's steel industry.

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21

Why did the lumber industry grow in the late 1800s?

Had an effect on lumber industry because they supplied wood for railway ties

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22

Why did the coal industry grow in the late 1800s?

Coal industry because it provided fuel

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23

How did the large railroad companies force smaller companies out of business?

Large railroads offered secret discounts called rebates to their biggest customers. Smaller railroads that could not match these discounts were often forced out of business.

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24

How did the railroads negatively impact farmers?

Giving rebates to big customers meant that freight rates rose for farmers and other customers who shipped small amounts of goods. (Monopoly on transportation price)

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25

How did mass production benefit customers?

Mass production of goods meant that products could be sold more cheaply since manufacturing costs decreased. (More safe, more cost-effective, more efficient)

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26

What is a "trust?"

A trust is a group of companies managed by the same board of directors.

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27

What is a monopoly?

A monopoly is a total control over an industry by a single producer.

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28

Why is a lack of competition in business bad?

(very little improvement and higher prices) A lack of competition in business can lead to a monopoly, which means that one company has total control in one area of business. This control gives the company the ability to make prices as high or low as they want, and the customers would have to pay the price because there is no other option to get the goods they needed. Unfair prices could lead to debt and rising tensions.

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29

Were child labor laws effective? Why or why not?

They were not effective because many employers ignored the law.

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30

What are trade unions?

Trade unions are unions formed by skilled workers in the early 1800s to represent workers in certain crafts or trades, such as carpentry.

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31

What is collective bargaining?

A trade union representing workers with their employers.

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32

Who was Eugene V. Debs, and what are the things he's remembered for?

(workers strike, refusal to end strike, and work at Pullman Railway Plant) Eugene V. Debs was the leader of the American Railway Union. He is known for refusing to end the strike on Pullman Cars even though Pullman and the railroad owners obtained an injunction to stop the union from "obstructing the railways and holding up the mails." Debs was sent to jail.

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33

In the mid1880s, how did the pattern of immigration change?

Large groups of "new" immigrants arrived from eastern and southern Europe. Greeks, Russians, Hungarians, Italians, Turks, and Poles were among the newcomers. At the same time, the number of "old" immigrants from northern and western Europe started to decrease.

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34

Describe the process immigrants had to go through to enter the United States in the mid1800s.

Before immigrants could actually pass through the "golden door" to America, they had to register at government reception centers. In the East, immigrants were processed at Castle Garden, a former fort on Manhattan Island. After 1892, they went through Ellis Island in New York Harbor. Most Asian immigrants arrived in the United States on the West Coast in California and went through the processing center on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. Examiners at the center recorded the immigrants' names- sometimes they shortening or simplifying a name they found too difficult to write. The examiners asked immigrants where they came from, their occupation, and whether they had relatives in the United States. New immigrants were also given health examinations. Immigrants with contagious illnesses could be refused permission to enter the United States.

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35

What was the Nativist Movement?

A movement that opposed immigration and gained strength in the late 1800s.

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36

Why did many native-born Americans resented the new wave of immigrants?

They feared that the new immigrants would take away their jobs or drive down everyone's wages by accepting lower pay.

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37

What did supporters of the Nativist Movement argue?

The Americans also argued that the new immigrants - with their foreign languages, unfamiliar religions, and distinctive customs - would not fit into American society.

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38

What did people blame the immigrants for?

Increasing crime, unemployment, and other problems.

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39

Following the Nativist Movement, what were some of the actions that the U.S. federal government took to curb immigration into the United States by the end of the 19th century?

Chinese Exclusion Act, "Gentleman's Agreement", Immigration act of 1917

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40

What was the Immigration act of 1917?

Made literacy a requirement to immigrate to America

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41

What did the Chinese Exclusion Act do?

Passed in 1882, the act prohibited Chinese workers from entering the United States for ten years, and it was renewed in 1892 and 1902

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42

What did the Gentlemen's Agreement do?

Decreased Japanese immigration

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43

What were the provisions of the Immigration Act of 1917?

The 1917 Immigration Act, also known as the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, was a law passed by Congress on February 5, 1917 that restricted the immigration of 'undesirables' from other countries. It also made a literacy requirement to immigrate to America.

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44

Which areas' populations were at least 80 percent immigrants in 1890?

In major urban centers such as New York, Chicago, and Detroit, immigrants and their children made up 80 percent or more of the population in 1890.

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45

What and when was the Gilded Age?

1870-1900, extravagant wealth/terrible property

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46

What was the Gilded Age?

Because of the extravagant wealth, the rich had during this time and the terrible poverty that lay beneath it, it was called the Gilded Age. The word gilded refers to something that is covered in a thin layer of gold.

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47

What were settlement houses?

Settlement houses were establishments that gave assistance to the poor and immigration populations in any way they possibly could- helping people cope, assimilate by providing charity, food, and other necessities.

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48

What was a famous settlement house?

One of the most famous houses was Chicago's Hull House, founded by Jane Addams in 1889.

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49

What made education a "progressive" education?

A progressive education shapes the characters of the students and teaches them good citizenship as well as facts.

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50

What were progressive education tenets?

Supporters' tenets were that children should learn through the use of hands-on activities. Schools should relate learning to the interests, problems, and concerns of students.

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51

What did many states open up by selling federal land that was given to the states by the 1862 Morrill Act?

Using these funds, states created schools called land-grant colleges.

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52

Who said they would build and stock a library in any city that would be able to pay for its operating costs once it was opened?

Andrew Carnegie

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53

What is a sensational writing style that exaggerates dramatic or gruesome aspects of a story?

Yellow Journalism

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54

What are "political machines?"

Political machines were powerful organizations linked to political parties.

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55

How do political machines work?

In each ward or political district within a city, a political boss controlled jobs and services.

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56

What do political machines do?

These machines controlled the local government in many cities.

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57

Where are political machines?

In many cities

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58

Who runs political machines?

Political bosses

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59

What was created in response to the despised "Spoils System?"

The Pendleton Act and Civil Service Commission

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60

What did Republicans do to protect U.S. Businesses from foreign competition?

raised tariffs

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61

Whose reporting helped the mentally ill?

Nelly Bly

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62

What was the Upton Sinclair novel, The Jungle, about? What happened as a result of its publishing?

Horrors of meatpacking, food safety laws, and Meat Inspection Act 1906.

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63

What is capitalism?

Property privately owned, all citizens free to earn, free enterprise system.

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64

What is communism?

Property publicly owned, people work/are paid according to ability/need

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65

Why were Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti executed? What widespread panic was this an example of?

Murder, Red Scare

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66

What did steelworkers do in 1919 to demand an increase in wages and an eight-hour workday?

went on stike

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67

Why did the governor fire the Boston police force?

They went on strike to form a union, but when the entire strike collapsed, the police force were fired.

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68

What do anarchists want and believe?

Anarchists are people who believe there should be no government.

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69

Explain welfare capitalism.

Businesses tried to build better relationships with their workers. They set up safety programs that lowered the risk of death or injury on the job. Some provided health and accident insurance. These steps- known as welfare capitalism- aimed to link workers more closely to the company they worked for. Businesses also adopted these steps to keep workers from joining independent unions.

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70

What is the Gross Domestic Product?

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the values of goods only produced within the boundaries of the U.S.

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71

What is the Gross National Product?

Gross National Product (GNP) - Value of ALL goods/services produced by U.S., including foreign investments

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72

What is the process of installment buying?

Installment buying is when customers buy products by promising to pay small regular amounts over a period of time.

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73

What is a recession?

A recession is an economic downturn. A recession lingered after World War 1.

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74

Name all of the problems that led to the Great Depression.

Farming income shrank during the 1920s and employee wages decreased, goods were over-produced and became difficult to sell, a growing gap between extremely wealthy and extremely poor.

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75

How did the U.S. Depression impact Europe initially?

Weaknesses in the American economy also sapped the strength of foreign companies. European countries needed to borrow money from American banks and to sell goods to American consumers in order to repay their World War 1 debts to the United States. During the late 1920s, bank funds for loans dried up. International trade slowed down, without American Loans, other nations had less money to spend.

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76

What was President Hoover's reaction to the economic crisis?

He believed the economic crisis was only temporary and a public works project.

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77

Eventually, what were some of President Hoover's plans to help the Depression?

Eventually, Hoover recognized that the federal government had to take steps to combat the Depression. In 1931 he authorized additional federal spending on public works—projects such as highways, parks, and libraries—to create new jobs. Hoover tried a different measure in January 1932, when he asked Congress to create the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The RFC lent money to businesses. It also provided funds for state and local programs providing relief.

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78

Did Hoover's plans work? Why or why not?

State and local governments ran out of money, however, and the combined spending by all three levels of government declined. The RFC's directors were reluctant to make risky loans, and much of its budget remained unspent. They were unsuccessful as all of them resulted in money being run out or not spent.

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79

What was Hawley-Smoot Tariff and what effect did/didn't it have?

In 1930, Congress passed the Hawley-Smoot tariff. (A tariff taxes imported goods). Because goods purchased from foreign countries cost more now, Americans bought fewer of them. Foreign countries responded by raising their own tariffs on American products. As a result, foreign countries purchased fewer American goods. (did not work)

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80

Explain Roosevelt's massive popularity as a presidential candidate.

He promised to find a solution to the depression. People were so ticked at Hoover because Hoover believed the economy would correct itself without government, so they all turned on him and voted for Roosevelt, and he already had a good reputation as a governor of New York.

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81

What were the fireside chats and why were they so important?

They were radio broadcasts from the president to the people. These fireside chats helped FDR gain the public's confidence and trust. This connected the government directly to the people.

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82

What was the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and why was it created?

To avoid future banking crises, Congress passed a law regulating the sale of stocks and bonds and created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This

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83

What was the First New Deal, and explain its effects (immediately successful? Why/why not? Other impact?)

The new laws that Congress passed during the Hundred Days—and in the months and years that followed—came to be called the New Deal. New Deal laws and regulations affected banking, the stock market, industry, agriculture, public works, relief for the poor, and conservation of resources. They were not immediately successful. These laws did not work, but it restored people's confidence in the government. He gave them hope and confidence. Better-no, Confidence- Yes

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84

What was the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation), and why was it created?

The FDIC backed the money put in banks.

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85

Populist Party

Farmers upset with Dem/Rep party, say Gov, should be more active in economy

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