Final Biology Exam Spring

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Independent variable

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46 Terms

1

Independent variable

manipulated (stands alone)

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2

dependent variable

responding

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3

hypothesis

theory based on limited evidence

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4

Homeostasis

state of steady internal, physical, chemical, and social conditions maintained by living systems

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5

Equilibrium

When the concentration of molecules on either side of the membrane are equal

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6

Feedback loop

Response to a stimulus to enhance or stop it

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7

Stimulus

Outside influence on an organism or something that can trigger physical or behavioral change

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8

response

physiological mechanism to an outside stimulus

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9

positive feedback

feedback loop that enhances the stimulus

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10

negative feedback

feedback loops that stops the stimulus

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11

levels of organization

cell—>tissue—>organ—>organ system—>organism

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12

DNA replication

process of DNA being copied (occurs during synthesis)

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13

transcription

DNA—>RNA

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14

translation

RNA—>protein

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15

Gene expression

Using a gene to make a protein

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16

cancer/tumor

cells uncontrollably dividing

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17

P53

Protein that can inhibit CDK (Cyclin-dependent kinases) activity in G1 or G2 (plays a key role in controlling cell division and cell death)

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18

mutation

Change in sequences of bases in DNA

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19

gene

Section of DNA that codes for protein

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20

Allele

What the gene actually says (different variations/genetic sequence)

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21

DNA/Cell Damage

change in DNA base pairing that can cause damage to protein structure and functions. Cell cycle checkpoints avoid such damage

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22

RNA

Single stranded, contains, ribose, uracil instead of thymine

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23

Protein

An organic compound made up of small molecules (amino acids)

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24

Cell cycle

Repeating series of event that includes growth, DNA synthesis, and cell division (G1→synthesis→G2→mitosis)

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25

Gap phase

Cell growth and normal functions

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26

synthesis phase

DNA is copied

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27

Mitosis

Chromosomes divide (PMAT)

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28

interphase

G1, synthesis, G2

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29

Meiosis

A process that produces haploid gametes

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30

checkpoint/cell cycle regulators

Protein signal the cell to either start or delay the next phase of the cycle

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31

Apoptosis

the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.

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32

Genetic variation

The variation is due to independent assortment and crossing over during meiosis and random union of gametes during fertilization.

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33

Crossing over

Exchange of genetic materials between non-sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes

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34

Reduction division

Cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the cell

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35

Fitness

The ability to survive and reproduce

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36

adaption

an inherited characteristic that increases organism fitness

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37

Natural selection

The process by which random evolutionary changes are selected for/by nature in a consistent, orderly, non-random way

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38

evolution

Gradual change in species overtime

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39

Phenotype/trait

Actual appearance resulting from the expression from the genes

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40

artificial selection

Process by humans change a species by breeding it for certain traits

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41

Genetic diversity

the range of different inherited traits within a species

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42

conditions for evolution

When selective pressure push for natural selection among membrane of a species

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43

Selective pressure

Populations of a species experience new environmental conditions in which they must survive (new habitat)

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44

isolation

Populations of a species must be reproductively isolated from each other in order to evolve into separate species

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45

variation

Genetic variation is the difference in DNA among individuals or populations

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46

Population

group of organisms living in the same geographical area at the same time

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