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The Congress of Vienna


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European History

AP European History


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20 Terms

The Congress of Vienna

A convention composed of the Prussians, Austrians, Russians & British. Delegates from the four countries would decide how France would be treated after what they did in the French Revolution. A prominent figure was Prince Klemens Von Metternich of Austria, a conservative who argued in favor of divine right.

The Holy Alliance

A tripartite signed by Austria, Prussia, & Russia to defend Christian values in everyday life & were big supporters of the divine right to rule.

The Carlsbad Decrees

A set of restrictions enacted at the formation of the German Confederation in September 1819. These decrees banned nationalist frats, liberal professors, & big on press censorship.


An ideology rooted in the belief of freedom of the press, equality of government & social class, & more "modern" governmental systems

Laissez Faire

French for "leave it be", Laissez Faire was an economic system with the intention of a free market; hence the name. The establishment of Laissez Faire laid the groundwork for modern capitalism.


Nationalism is the idea of supporting & identifying one's own nation & the support of it's interests. Nationalism is fueled by the want of superiority & determent of other states.


A political ideology where the workers or government own the buildings & equipment to produces goods & services. This can be achieved through decentralization or by the state controlling the means to production


A version of socialism named after Karl Marx that puts the struggle of capitalists vs the working class in the limelight. Marx had the idea that the relationship between the two groups would lead to conflict.


A term to describe the higher sect, working class of the Third Estate. The term later shifted to describe the general working class after the French Revolution. The Bourgeoisie would stage revolutions in 1830 & 1848. The latter would be known as "the June days"


A term deriving from Marxism to collectively describe the working class, originates from describing the lowest class of citizens in ancient Rome


A term to describe the artistic movement in the 1800's. The term directly describes the visual art & literature of the time. Romance art is full of light & pastel colors, dramatic posing, & glorification of the past

Corn Laws

A set of laws passed in England in 1815 to place tariffs on cereals such as wheat & corn, hence the name. These laws were to prevent imports & promote domestic agriculture

The Battle of Peterloo

A massacre at St Peter's Field in Manchester, Lancashire, England in 1819. 15 people died when a cavalry charged into a crowd demanding reformation to the parliamentary system, specifically parliamentary representation

The Reform Bill of 1832

The Reform Bill of 1832 was a bill passed by British lawmakers to broaden franchise qualification, including small landowner, tenant farmers, & shopkeeps. They installed a uniform franchise with a yearly rental of 10 pound sterling (£10)

The Great Famine

Also known as Black '47, taking place in Ireland. The famine caused immense hunger, disease, & emigration. The root cause was a disease which affected potatoes, the staple crop of Ireland

Greater Germany

A proposed unification of the northern areas of the Germanic states & Austria.

The Mountain

Known in french as "La Montagne", The Mountain was a political faction formed by Maximillian Robespierre, Georges Danton, & many more. Montagnards were highly opposed to the Giordins. The faction is most known for being the ruling faction during the Great Terror of Maximillian Robespierre

Le Sans-Culottes

A radicalistic group that formed during the French revolution. They were known for not wearing breeches and being the majority of the revolutionary army. Sans-Culottes are also usually seen with the Phrygian, a blood red bonnet which was the sign of the revolution. They fought for democratic constitution, economic law to help the poor & price controls

Le Girodins

Girodins were the polar opposite to La Montagne, republicans who supported women's suffrage & abolition of slavery. They also had a royalist minority.


Also known as "Société des amis de la Constitution", The Jacobins were a club founded by Maximillian Robespierre (after La Montagne), who were very anti-royalist. Members of La Montagne left & joined the Jacobins. They stood for preservation of the natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression