AP Psychology - Vocabulary 12

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consciousness

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49 Terms

1

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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2

biological rhythms

periodic physiological fluctuations

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3

circadian rhythms

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

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4

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active

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5

alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

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6

sleep

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

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7

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

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8

delta waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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9

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

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10

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

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11

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleeping and repeated momentary awakenings

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12

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, they occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

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13

dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. They are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it

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14

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

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15

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that this functions as a safety valve

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16

rapid eye movement (REM) rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

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17

hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will simultaneously occur

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18

dissociation

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

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19

psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

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20

tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

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21

withdrawal

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

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22

physical dependence

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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23

psychological dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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24

addiction

compulsive drug craving and use

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25

depressants

drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. Includes alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates

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26

barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

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27

opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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28

stimulants

drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy)

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29

amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

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30

methamphetamines

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

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31

ecstasy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition

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32

hallucinogens

psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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33

LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid

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34

THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

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35

near-death experience

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinogens

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36

dualism

the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

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37

monism

the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing

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38

activation-synthesis theory

researched by Allan Hobson; dreams serve no particular purpose

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39

problem-solving dream models

dreams help us to find creative solutions to our problems

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40

fantasy-prone personality

live in a vivid fantasy world which the person controls

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41

restoration model

sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue

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42

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

a cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain seasons of the year

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43

divided attention

the capacity to attend to and perform more than one activity at the same time

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44

beta waves

when you are awake and alert

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45

sleep spindles

periodic 1 to 2 second bursts of rapid brain wave activity

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46

memory consolidation

high levels of brain activity during REM may help to transfer information into long-term memory

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47

wish fulfillment

according to Freud we dream to gratify our unconscious desires and needs; "All men are great in their dreams"

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48

dual processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

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49

mindfulness meditation

a reflective practice in which people attend to current experiences in a nonjudgmental and accepting manner

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