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1

Survey

a technique for ascertaining the self- reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

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2

Scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.

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3

Mode

the most frequently occurring score (s) in a distribution.

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4

Double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo.

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5

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

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6

Operational definition

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.

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7

Hindsight Bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

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8

Humble open

________- mindedness- accept and listen to ideas from all sides.

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9

Correlation Coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from- 1.0 to +1.0)

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10

Coin flip you

________ are just as likely to get heads every time than a bunch of random results.

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11

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

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12

Skeptical scrutinization

________- dont blindly believe everything.

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13

Validity

the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

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14

Correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors change together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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15

Single

________- blind: person in experiment does not know which group they are in.

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16

Standard Deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

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17

Political ads

________- know their hidden agenda, evaluate their evidence, know that a lot is taken out of context, make your own conclusions.

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18

Median

the middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it.

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19

Population

________- hard to ask every single person in the ________, so use a sample.

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20

Case Study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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21

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

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22

Sampling bias

a flawed sampling process that is produced by using an unrepresentative sample.

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23

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)

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24

Inferential Statistics

numerical data that allow one to generalize—to infer from sample data the probability of something being true to a population.

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25

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

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26

Representative samples

________ are better than biased samples.

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27

Illusory Correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

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28

Confounding Variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

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29

Descriptive Statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups.

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30

Skewed Distribution

a(n) representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value.

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31

Placebo Effect

experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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32

Histogram

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.

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33

Statistical Significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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34

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions.

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35

Naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

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36

Overconfidence

we tend to think we know more than we do.

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37

Hindsight bias

________, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events lead us to overestimate our intuition.

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38

Correlation

________ does not mean causation, it only helps to predict.

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39

Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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40

The Scientific Attitude

Curious, Skeptical, and Humble

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41

Very time

and cost-intensive-putting all your eggs in one basket

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42

Single-blind

person in experiment does not know which group they are in

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43

Normal curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scored fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes

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44

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution

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45

Control group

in an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of a treatment

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46

Experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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47

Culture

the enduring behavior, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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48

Informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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49

Debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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50

population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (note: except for national studies, this does not refer to the entire population of a country)

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51

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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52

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups

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53

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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