Civil War Study Guide

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Slavery

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Slavery

What dominates the political landscape?

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Wilmot Proviso

No slavery in territory acquired from Mexico

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North Argument

Slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers.

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South Argument

Slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states.

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The Gold Rush

Caused California's population to explode

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Secession

Withdrawal of state from Union

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Reasons the south is angry

California possibly being admitted as a free state, Texas's border, the calls to abolish slavery in D.C., North not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.

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Popular Sovereignty

The right of residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery.

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Daniel Webster

Senator from MA, argued with the northern Whigs that slavery shouldn't be extended into the territories, agrees with the Compromise in order to preserve the Union.

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John C Calhoun

Senator from SC Former VP, Secretary of state, secretary of war Believed strongly in states' rights over the federal power and held the interests of the slave-holding south as his highest priority.

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Stephen Douglass

Senator from Illinois Takes lead in getting the Compromise Passed after Clay leaves Washington Skilled politician who has his eyes set on the presidency Future political rival of Abraham Lincoln

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Terms of Clays Compromise

California admitted as a free state Utah and New Mexico territories to decide about slavery Texas-New mExico boundary dispute resolved; Texas paid $10 million by federal government Sale of slaves banned in the District of Columbia, but slavery itself may continue there

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Fugitive Slave Act

Part of the Compromise of 1850, has very harsh terms Alleged fugitives denied jury trial, right to testify on their own behalf Federal commissioners paid more for returning than freeing accused People convicted of helping a fugitive fined, imprisioned, or both.

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Frederick Douglass

Former enslaved person who becomes a leading voice in the abolitionist movement, giving speeches and writing books about the horrors of slavery.

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Underground Railroad

Secret network of people who help slaves escape

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Harriet Tubman

Escaped slavery A conductor on 19 trips

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Lincoln's victory...

Caused southerners to feel they have lost their political voice.

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Reasons why SC secedes from Union

Want to complete independence from federal control Fear end to their way of life Want to preserve labor system

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Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy

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Fort Sumter

Area where the first shots are fired

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Union War Strategy

Anaconda Plan

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Anaconda Plan

Developed by Winfield Scott Blockade southern ports Divide confederacy in two in west Capture Richmond, confederate capital

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Confederate Strategy:

Defense Invade North if opportunity arises

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Union Avantages:

Number of soldiers Factories Food Railroads

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Confederacy Advantages

Cotton profits Motivation

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Stonewall Jackson

Led the Confederate army in the Battle of Bull Run

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George McClellan

Leader of the Union Army in the beginning of the war

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General Ulysses S. Grant

Union general in the western theater

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Battle of Antietam

Bloodiest single-day battle

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Battle of Gettysburg

Turning point in the war

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George Meade

Union General who leads the army in thr Battle of Gettysburg

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The Gettysburg Address...

Honors dead U.S. soldiers Calls for living to dedicate selves to preserve Union, freedom

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William Sherman's war strategy

Total, leave nothing behind.

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Abraham Lincoln

Wins election of 1864

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Robert E. Lee surrenders...

At the Appomattox Court House

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Civil War death toll

620,000

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13th Amendment

Abolishes slavery in all states

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Ford's Theater

Where Lincoln was assasinated

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John Wilkes Booth

Killed Abraham Lincoln

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Andrew Johnson

Sworn in as president after Lincoln's assasination

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