AP World History - Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections

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Explorations Financed by Portugal

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Explorations Financed by Portugal

  1. Prince Henry the Navigator

  2. Vasco da Gama: explored eastern Africa, India

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2

Explorations Financed by Spain

Christopher Columbus: explored Americas

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3

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

agreement between Spain and Portugal to split colonized land between them

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4

Explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1500)

South America

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5

Ponce de Leon (1513)

Explored Florida

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6

Vasco de Balboa (1513)

Explored Central America

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7

Ferdinand Magellan (1519)

Explored South America to Philippines

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8

Giovanni da Verrazzano (1524)

Explored North America

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9

Sir Francis Drake (1578)

circumnavigated the globe

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10

John Cabot (1497)

Explored North America

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11

Henry Hudson (1609)

Explored the Hudson River

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12

Products that aided new explorations

  1. Sternpost Rudder

  2. Lateen Sails

  3. Astrolabe

  4. Magnetic Compass

  5. Three-Masted Caravels

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13

Sternpost Rudder

invented in China - better control of ships

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14

Lateen Sails

invented in Roman Empire - allowed directional control of ships

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15

Astrolabe

navigation device that measured distance between sun and stars on horizon to determine latitude

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16

Magnetic Compass

developed in China - determine direction

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17

Three-Masted Caravels

large ships fit for longer journeys

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18

Hernando Cortes

landed on coast of Mexico in 1519 - sought to exploit the Aztec Empire of their gold and spices

  • Became very hungry for wealth and quickly seized Montezuma and began a siege of Tenochtitlan

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Disease in the Aztec Empire

Spanish brought smallpox which reduced their population from 20 million in 1520 to 2 million in 1580

  • Spanish were able to take control in 1525

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Francisco Pizarro

  • took over Inca Empire in 1531 partially due to spreading disease to them

    • Pizarro was in control of the Inca Empire by 1535

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Encomienda System

Spanish implemented a hierarchical colonial society as they took over the New World:

  1. Peninsulares: Spanish officials governing the colonies

  2. Creoles: Spanish born in colonies to Spanish parents - barred from high positions but were educated and wealthy

  3. Mestizos: those with European/Native American ancestry

  4. Mulattos: those with European/African ancestry

  5. Native Americans

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Viceroys

governors of each of 5 regions of New Spain - established the encomienda system

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23

Start of the African Slave Trade

  • Europe exploited a system of slavery already existing in Africa - prisoners were supposed to serve their captors before being released

  • Europeans traded for their surplus of enslaved people, but didn’t understand that they were supposed to be released

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Middle Passage

Ocean passage from Africa to Americas that was brutal with treacherous waters

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Where did Europe take the African slaves?

Around 13 million Africans were taken - 60% to South America, 35% to Caribbean, 5% to North America, around 20% of people on each trip perished

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Columbian Exchange

  • Transatlantic transfer of animals, plants, diseases, people, technology, ideas among Europe, Americas, and Africa

  • Never before had so much moved across the ocean

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Key Products of the Columbian Exchange

  1. sugar (plantations appeared all over Spanish colonies),

  2. silver (mining also in Spanish colonies)

  • both used significant forced labour

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28

Age or Exploration

trading, empire building, conquest - due to financing schemes

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29

Joint-stock Company

pool resources of merchants to distribute costs and reducing dangers of individual investors

  • Led to huge profits and modern-day concept of stock markets

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Mercantilism

theory that creating a favourable balance of import and export was best - of course, this led to Europe’s intense colonialism to match their import demand

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