Quiz 7 Prep

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intracellular fluid (icf)

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intracellular fluid (icf)

70% of water in body, within cells

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extracellular fluid (ecf)

30% of body water, outside cells

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dehydration

loss of water from body/tissues

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electrolytes

minerals in your body that carry electric charge

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solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

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solute

the dissolved matter in a solution; the component of a solution that changes its state

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osmosis

solvent passes from area of LOW concentration to HIGH concentration

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osmolarity

concentration of particles in a solution (it's pulling power)

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isotonic

taking place with normal concentration(muscle), solution that contains the same concentration of water and solutes as the intracellular fluid

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hypertonic solution

greater osmolarity than plasma (fluid with higher concentration)

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hypotonic solution

less osmolarity than plasma (fluid w lower concentration)

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Diffusion

movement of particles from HIGHER concentration to LOWER concentration

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aldosterone

hormone that stimulates the absorption of sodium in kidneys (regulates water to salt balance in kidneys)

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edema scale- how many levels?

+4

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what is RAAS Scale?

scale that assesses the level of sedation in pt, 10 levels

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1lb of water in body is how many kg?

2.2 kg

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what is a fluid fluid deficit

hypovolemia

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what is an excess of fluid

hypervolemia

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NCLEX Q: what types of labs are typically done to determine hypovolemia?

urine gravity test, hemoglobin (looking for a decrease), elevated BUN, serum electrolytes (blood test), nemocrat. blood test; DON'T NEED TO KNOW ALL

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intracellular vs extracellular: which takes up 2/3 of body fluid?

intracellular!

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example of extracellular fluid:

plasma or blood

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T/F: oral care stimulates appetite/thirst

True

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parenteral fluid therapy determines what?

rate of fluid administration

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what is low sodium called? What are its normal ranges?

Hyponatremia: 135-145 (MeQ/L)

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what is high sodium called? what is it's cause?

Hypernatremia, heat stroke or excessive sweating

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what is too much potassium? What is its normal range?

Hypokalemia: 3.5-5 (MeQ/L)

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what is too little potassium? What is it's cause?

Hyperkalemia, renal failure or kidney failure

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what is MeQ/L?

milliequivalents per liter

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what is too much calcium? What is its normal range?

Hypocalcemia: 8.6-10.2 (mg/dl)

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what is too much calcium and its causes?

Hypercalcemia: hyperthyroidism/bone loss/renal issues

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what is low magnesium and its normal range?

Hypomagnesia: 1.3-2.3 (mg/dl)

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what is high magnesium and its causes?

Hypermagnesia: renal failure, DKA (diabetes)

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what is high phosphorus and its normal ranges?

Hypophosphatemia: 2.5-4.5 (mg/dl)

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what is high phosphorus and its causes?

Hyperphosphatemia: excessive vit.D, chemo, renal failure

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Infiltration vs Infection (of IV): what is the main difference

infection has discharge while infiltration does not

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Term for IV infection

phlebitis

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what is term for too much IV fluid

septicemia

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normal PH range

7.35-7.45 (perfect medium 7.4)

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HCO3 (bicarbonate) range

22-26

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subcutaneous injections- what angle?

45-90

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intravenous injections- what angle?

25-30

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intramuscular injections- what angle?

90

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what is the largest needle size?

16 gauge

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how much fluid can go into a intramuscular shot?

.5-3ml

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how much fluid can be given in a subcutaneous injection?

.5-1ml

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what type of solution is saline?

isotonic

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spiritual assessment: what does HOPE stand for

Hope, Organized religion, Personal spiritual practice, Effects on medical care

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what age can a person start having religions beliefs

4+

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sexual assessment: what does BETTER stand for

Bring up topic, Explain your concern, Tell pt sexual dysfunction can happen, Timing (private setting not group), Educate, Record data

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T/F: Chlamydia is a viral infection

False- bacterial

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Fully compensated vs un-compensated:

fully is opposite but with normal ranges, un-compensated is normal PH but abnormal other data

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what is normal compensation?

all numbers in normal range

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what is fully compensated?

normal PH

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what is uncompensated?

PCo2 or HCO3 are in normal range

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quid pro quo

something for something; that which a party receives in return for something he does or gives or promises

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what triggers psychological drive for thirst?

decreased blood volume and intracellular dehydration

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which electrolytes regulate the parathyroid gland?

phosphorus and calcium

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cardiac irregularities are a sign of what imbalanced electrolyte?

potassium or sodium

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saline solution is what % LR and normal saline

0.9%

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what nurse intervention would work for signs of pre-phlebitis?

a warm compress

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