Biology Cell Transport/Communication Test

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Robert Hooke

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1

Robert Hooke

Scientist who discovered the first cell in a piece of cork

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2

Cell Theory

Theory that states:
1. All Living Things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function
3. New cells are produced from pre-existing cells

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3

Eukaryotic

Type of cell that has a nucleus

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4

Prokaryotic

Type of cell that DOES NOT have a nucleus

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5

Cytoplasm

Where DNA is found in unicellular organisms

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6

Prokaryotic

What type of cell bacteria is

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7

Asexual Reproduction

What type of reproduction bacteria does to reproduce

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8

Budding

Type of asexual reproduction when a small part of the cell breaks off

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9

Binary Fission

Type of asexual reproduction when the cell splits

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10

Bacillus

Oval shape of bacteria

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11

Coccus

Circular shape of bacteria

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12

Spirillus

Spiral shape of bacteria

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13

Autotrophic

Type of organism that creates its own food for energy, usually in the form of photosynthesis

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14

Chemotrophic

Kind of organism that uses chemicals to obtain energy

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15

Heterotrophic

Type of organism that has to eat to obtain energy

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16

Extremophiles

Organisms (bacteria) that live in extreme areas, like super hot or cold, or acidic or basic areas

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17

Pathogens

What bad bacteria in your body is called

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18

Antibodies

What your body produces to fight pathogens

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19

No

Is a virus a living thing? (Yes/No)

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20

Head

Where RNA is stored in viruses

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21

Base Plate

What part of a virus is used to anchor onto cells

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22

No

Are viruses made of cells? (Yes/No)

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23

Vaccines

What is used to prevent viruses

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24

Passive Transport

Type of cellular transport that DOES NOT require energy

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25

Active Transport

Type of cellular transport that DOES require energy

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26

Diffusion

Process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to low concentration

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27

Cell Membrane

Where diffusion goes through

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28

Equilibrium

When the concentrations on both sides are equal (This is a STATE OF BEING)

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29

Facilitated Diffusion

Diffusion of molecules that require the use of channel proteins. An example is water, because it is a polar molecule

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30

Osmosis

Type of facilitated diffusion that uses aquaporins to diffuse water through the cell membrane

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31

Concentration Gradient

The direction of the flow of molecules

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32

Against

Which way does active transport go on the concentration gradient (With/Against)

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33

With

Which way does passive transport go on the concentration gradient (With/Against)

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34

Endocytosis

Type of Active Transport by which the cell membrane folds around a substance and creates a vesicle to transport around the cell

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35

Exocytosis

Type of Active Transport by which the vesicle merges with the cell membrane and releases the substance out of the cell

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36

Protein Pump

Active Transport that requires ATP energy shoot it out of the cell against the concentration gradient

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37

Semi Permeable

When only certain substances are allowed to travel through something

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38

Osmotic Pressure

Force exerted by the net movement of water in or out of the cell

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39

Isotonic

When the concentration on both sides of the membrane is the same

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40

Hypertonic

When the concentration is greater in relation to another substance

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Hypotonic

When the concentration is less in relation to another substance

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42

Plasmolyzed

When the cell membrane shrivels up but the cell wall stays intact in bacteria

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43

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

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44

Hydrophilic

Water loving

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45

Glycerol

What part of the cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer) is hydrophilic?

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46

Fatty Acid

What part of the cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer) is hydrophobic?

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47

Cells

Smallest level of organization

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48

Tissues

Level of organization made up of cells

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49

Organs

Level of organization made up of tissues

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50

Organ Systems

Level of organization made up of organs

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51

Receptors

Part of cell membrane that will receive chemical signals

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52

Signal Transduction Pathways

What converts signals received cell’s surface into cellular responses

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53

Exchange of Mating Factors

1st step in mating cells. Each cell type secretes a mating factor that binds to receptors on the other cell type.

<p>1st step in mating cells. Each cell type secretes a mating factor that binds to receptors on the other cell type.</p>
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54

Mating

2nd step in mating cells. Binding of the factors to receptors induces changes in the cells that lead to their fusion

<p>2nd step in mating cells. Binding of the factors to receptors induces changes in the cells that lead to their fusion</p>
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55

New Cell

Last step in mating cells. The nucleus of the fused cell includes all the genes from each of the two cells.

<p>Last step in mating cells. The nucleus of the fused cell includes all the genes from each of the two cells.</p>
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56

Quorum Sensing

A concentration of signaling molecules that allows bacteria to sense local population density

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57

Cell Junctions

Allows molecules to pass readily between adjacent cells without crossing the cell membrane

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58

Gap Junction

A cell junction in an animal cell

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59

Plasmodesmata

A cell junction in a plant cell

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60

Cell-Cell recognition

What it is called when 2 cells are able to communicate by molecules protruding touching each other from their surfaces

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61

Growth Factors

Stimulate nearby target cells to grow and divide

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62

Synaptic Signaling

Occurs in animal nervous system when a neurotransmitter is released in response to an electrical signal

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63

Hormones

What is used in long distance signaling

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64

Reception

1st stage of cell signaling. Target cell detects a signaling molecule that binds to a receptor protein on the cell surface

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65

Transduction

Binding of signaling molecule alters the receptor and initiates a signal transduction pathway

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66

Response

Transduced signal triggers a specific response in the target cell

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