Religions Key Terms

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Traditional/Indigenous Religion

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124 Terms

1

Traditional/Indigenous Religion

  • Regionally practiced

  • Lack of religious texts

  • Ceremonies usually involve nature, music and dance

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2

Shamanism

religious leader who uses altered states to speak to “Spirit world” - Witch doctors

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Animism

spirits inhabit all things

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Spiritualism

Brazil - connect to dead through “mediums”

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5

Pantheism

sacred being of nature itself

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Henotheism

multiple gods but devotion to specific one

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7

Dualism

belief in two supreme opposed powers or gods, or sets of divine or demonic beings, that caused the world to exist

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8

Ethnic Religion

regionally practiced - but more formalized (specific text, ceremonies involve after-life and social issues) - identified with specific ethnicities

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9

Universal Religion

religion attempting to diffuse throughout the world; spread mostly by missionaries

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10

Syncretic religion

religion with different traditions combined together

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11

Atheist

lack of belief in a God/gods

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12

Agnostic

don’t know if there’s a god/gods and/or if it’s possible to know

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13

Dogma

“holy texts”

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14

Metaphysics/-ical

study of supernatural beings and complexity of mind and thought (something outside of human sense perception)

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15

Supernatural

“above nature”

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16

Secular

non-religious/worldly

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17

Judaism

  • Oldest of monotheistic religions

  • Based on written histories and teachings from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)

    • Tanakh has three parts

      • Torah (The Teaching)

      • Nevi’im (The Prophets)

      • Ketuvim (The Writings)

    • Historically and geographically centered in Canaan/Israel/Levant

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Covenant

agreement

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19

Abraham (Ibrahim)

  • considered first patriarch of Judaism (and of the 3 “Abrahamic Faiths”)

  • covenant with God → worship only God to bless descendants & allow them to multiply

    • moved the people to Canaan (Jordan River Valley) but eventually forced out because of drought → wanderers

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Sarah

a wife of Abraham; had Isaac (younger son)

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Isaac

Sarah’s son; had sons who became tribal leaders of Jews → Christ/Christianity

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22

Hagar

a wife of Abraham; had Ishmael (older son)

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Ishmael

son of Hagar; became Father of Arabs → Muhammad/Islam

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24

Anatolia

modern name is Asia Minor (apart of Turkey)

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25

Canaan

Jordan River Valley; Promised Land of Israelites; “Land of Milk and Honey”

  • Modern states of Israel, Lebanon, western Syria ~2000-1700 BCE

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26

The Levant

first was reference to ancient lands along eastern coast of Mediterranean Sea in Old Testament (made up of kingdoms)

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Hebrew/Hebrews

descendants of patriarchs of Hebrew Bible

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28

Israel

aka Canaan

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Reason why Hebrews left Canaan for Egypt

Food shortage

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30

Messiah

the promised “anointed one” or Christ; the Savior

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Exodus

Moses led the departure of the Israelites from Egypt

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32

Moses

  • Lived in Egypt during “the exile” Yahweh → Moses is going to be more powerful than Egyptian Pantheon

  • 10 plagues → Israelites saves first born by marking doors with sacrificial lamb → basis of Passover

  • led group from Egypt to Sinai Peninsula ~1250 BCE

  • parted the Red Sea to travel out of Egypt

    • 10 Commandments and Mosaic Laws given to Moses during “the exile” Obedience → God = protection & formation of national group with religious purpose

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33

Passover

  • March or April (usually around Easter) - week long celebration

  • Observance deliverance of Jewish people from Egypt led by Moses

    • Days of rest & traditional meals

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Seder

  • Held on first or second night of Passover

  • Religious service set around dinner table

  • Prescribed by Haggadah

    • Order in which participants eat, pray, drink wine, sing, discuss current social justice issues and tell stories

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35

Yom Kippur

  • 10 days after Rosh Hashanah

  • Holiest of all days

  • “Day of Atonement”

    • Fast for 24 hrs, prayer and repentance

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36

Mosaic Law

bunch of laws given to Moses from God during “the exile”

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Judea

  • Holy Land

  • Jesus’s birthplace

  • Around Jerusalem

    • place where 2 out of 12 Tribes of Israel came

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38

Israel

  • son of Isaac

  • one of 3 patriarchs

  • original name was Jacob

  • Israel marks his people’s special relationship with one God

    • sons creates 12 Tribes of Israel

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12 Tribes of Israel

  • sons of Israel

  • blessings to each son

    • each have a tribe in Canaan

      • 10 in Israel (North)

      • 2 in Judea (South)

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Judges

  • successful individuals chosen from a different tribe in Israel

    • chosen by God to rescue the people from their enemies and establish justice and the practice of the Torah amongst the Hebrews

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Saul

  • first king of Israel

  • at first appointed king by Samuel (last of the judges)

    • ultimately rejected because of obedience to God

  • wanted to slay David

    • failed & David was successful

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David

  • appointed to be king after Saul disobeys God

  • Saul wants to slay David

    • David leads army

      • David vs. Goliath

        • David wins

  • made king in Judah

    • first king in Jerusalem

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43

Solomon

  • David’s son

  • built palaces and temples

    • some have golden inner walls

    • death → foreign invaders have control of Israel

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44

Babylonian Captivity

  • fulfillments of Old Testament prophecies

  • King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon holds Jews in captivity

  • Babylon = God’s agent of judgment against Israel for sins & rebellion

    • King Cyrus of Persia → Jews → Israel after 70 yrs ~537 BC

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45

Diaspora

Babylonian Exile → dispersion of Jews among Gentiles outside Palestine (present- day Israel)

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46

Synagogue

houses of prayer/places of worship

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47

Chanukah

  • November or December

  • Festival of Lights

  • Celebration of reconquering 2nd Temple from Syrians

  • They only enough oil for one day but lasted for eight

    • Menorah

      • light one candle for each day

        • receive gifts for each day

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48

Inquisitions

  • Catholic courts established to find and punish heretics

    • Many Jews killed during Spanish Inquisition

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49

Pogroms

  • outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence by non-Jewish street mobs

  • term first used in Russian Empire (1881-1884)

    • occurred during and after World War II & early 20th century

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50

Ghettos

enclosed districts that isolated Jews from the non-Jewish population and other Jewish communities

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51

Poland

Before WWII - where did the majority of Jews live?

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52

Jesus Christ

  • born during time of Roman rule in Bethlehem

  • born 0 AD/BC (+/- a few years)

  • born of Joseph and Mary of Bethlehem

  • Story of Immaculate Conception

    • Angel Gabriel tells Mary she will have child of importance — Son of God → basis of Christmas

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53

Edict of Milan

permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire

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54

Constantine

  • issued Edict of Milan in 313 CE

  • first to convert to Christianity

  • created Constantinople

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Great Schism

  • Roman church divided between two and ultimately three competing popes → denounced heresy and excommunicated each other

    • Italian pope = real pope (frfr no cap)

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56

Crusades

  • series of religious battles between Christians and Muslims

    • goal was to claim holy sites for both sides (specifically Holy Land)

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Reconquista

Christian Spain’s attempt to expel all Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula

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Reformation

  • religious reform movement

  • 1500s

  • resulted because of creation of Protestantism (branch of Christianity)

    • led by Martin Luther (95 Theses)

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Counter (Catholic) Reformation

Catholic Church’s steps to oppose growth of Protestantism

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60

Muhammad

  • Last prophet of Allah

  • Lived during time of lawlessness and violence

  • Arabs worshiped 360 different gods

  • Caravan driver → merchant later

  • Met Khadijah → becomes his wife

  • 610 CE - Mt. Hira - heard a voice telling him to “Proclaim” from Angel Gabriel

  • 620 CE - traveled to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem → Heaven

  • Conversation with Allah became Qur’an (Holy Text)

  • Duty as last prophet to spread word

    • Wasn’t received well and actually ostracized for a while

  • 630 CE - returns to Mecca and proclaims “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished.”

  • Goes to Kaaba and removes statues of 365 gods

  • States Allah is only God worshiped in Kaaba

    • Dedicates Black Stone to Allah

  • Says he is poisoned and dies in 632 CE

  • Calls all of followers to hillside for speech

    • Declares does not want to be worshiped and is just messenger

    • Debate of successor between Abu Bakr (friend) and Ali (cousin)

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Khadijah

wife of Muhammad

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62

Anno Hijra “The Year of Flight”

  • emigration of Prophet Muhammad and 70 Muslims from Makkah to Madinah

  • Madinah: where Muslims first attained religious and political autonomy

  • Hijirah occurred on 1 Muharram 1 according to Islamic calendar (July 16, AD 622 on Gregorian calendar)

    • Named “hijri” after its epoch

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63

Kaaba

sacred shrine which housed the images of many Arab gods

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64

Mecca

  • Birthplace of Islamic prophet Muhammad

    • Only Muslims are allowed to enter because it is sacred

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Medina

  • Muhammad’s tomb

    • Celebrated as place where Muhammad established Muslim community after flight from Mecca (622 AD)

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ZamZam Well

  • Water is believed to be blessed holy water

    • Miraculously generated water when Hagar and Ishmael (Abraham’s son) were left in the desert

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Archangel Gabriel

Archangel sent to various prophets by God

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68

Islam

Religion with fastest growing population

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Qur’an, Quran, Koran

  • Islamic Holy book

  • Believed to contain exact word of God as it was revealed to Muhammad

    • Authority on all subjects (religion, law, politics, economics, social life)

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Allah

  • “the God”

    • One and only God in Islam

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Caliph

  • Islamic state’s supreme religious and political leaderr

  • Considered spiritual leader of entire Muslim population in world

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Sultan

  • Head of state and government

  • Words were the Law

  • Responsible only to Allah and God’s Law (Seriat)

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Abu Bakr

Friend of Muhammad

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Ali Hussen

Cousin of Muhammad

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Sunni

  • Believe Muhammad’s successor should be Abu Bakr

    • Think Muhammad did not explicitly declare a successor

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Shia/Shiite

Believe Muhammad’s successor should be Ali Hussein

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Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj

5 Pillars of Islam

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Shahada

  • The creed

    • “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet.”

    • Muslims must proclaim their belief in one God and accept that God revealed his message to Muhammad. Honor must be given to the prophets Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muhammad is considered the last and the most important prophet. Muhammad is to be honored but not worshiped as a God.

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Salat

  • During prayer, one must face the holy city of Mecca. Each prayer time takes from 10 - 15 minutes. The 5 daily prayers are:

    • Fajr - Dawn, before sunrise

    • Dhuhr - Midday

    • Asr - Late part of afternoon

    • Maghrib - Sunset

    • Isha - between sunset and midnight

  • Vary based on time/calendar

  • Muslims pray on prayer rug (or small portable version)

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80

Zakat

  • Giving alms to the poor

  • People should give money, clothing and food to various charities

  • Basic concept is rich giving to poor

  • In Saudi Arabia estimate of 2.5% of income

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Sawm

  • Fasting from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan

  • Ramadan is 9th month of lunar year and is 30 days long

  • Required to fast from dusk to dawn

  • Summer months = longest fasting period due to daylight

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Hajj

Making pilgrimage to Mecca once during lifetime

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83

Ramadan

  • 9th month of lunar year

  • 30 days long

  • Fast from sunrise to sunset

  • Holy month

    • Celebrate first time God revealed words of Koran to Muhammad

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84

Eid al Fitr

  • Marks end of Ramadan

  • Celebrated during first three days of Shawwāl (10th month of Islamic calendar)

  • Holy festival

  • Performance of communal prayer at daybreak on its first day

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Jihad

  1. within one’s self to be good

  2. to expel false gods

    1. To spread the religion to heretics (non-believers)

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Sejuk Turks

12 C Steppe horsemen (nomadic) - accept Islam - spread Islam through Warrior expansion (imperialism) from MENA to Indus Valley

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Ottoman Empire

Take over Seljuk expansion - centered in Istanbul - spread Islam from Spain to India

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Cleric (Mullah)

a Holy or learned man- one who can read and interpret the Quran (Sunni)

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Imam

a religious leader. Sunnis call all their religious leaders Imams while Shias have designated 12 innocent Imams.

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Ayatollah

highest and most sacred order of Shia

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Sultan

Islamic warlord - controls an Islamic area

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Sultanate

an area controlled by Islamic leadership

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Hinduism

  • Showed people how to live by Henotheistic beliefs “written texts” - The Vedas

  • Believed to have been brought by Aryans during “Vedic Period” (~1500 BCE)

  • Caste system introduced into society

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Harappans

Inhabitants of ancient Indus Valley civilization

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Aryans

Believed to have brought Hinduism from Caucasus Mtns. - “Vedic Period” (~1500 BCE)

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Sanskrit

Primary sacred language of Hinduism

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Brahman

  • Universal soul

  • All things come from Brahman; all things return to Brahman

  • Divided into 3 gods (the Trimurti) - Pantheistic

    • Brahma

    • Vishnu

    • Shiva

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Brahmin

  • Top class (caste)

  • Priests, educators, judges, academics

  • Wealthy and high in status

  • Hold the highest/best jobs

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Brahma

the Creator

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Vishnu

the Preserver

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