History Facts 1-118 (Updated 3/28/2023)

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Jamestown

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Jamestown

1607- The year this colony was founded as the first permanent English settlement.

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The (first) great awakening

A series of religious revivals in the early 1700’s in America.

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Anne Hutchinson

Banished from the Massachusetts colony she became the first puritan woman

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Fundamental orders of Connecticut

Puritan plan of government in Connecticut adopted in 1639 as the first written constitution in North America.

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Magna Carta

Signed in 1215 buy King John 1 of England and was the first document that limited power of trial by King John 1 of England and was the first documents that limited power of the ruler —gave the power of trials by Jury

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William Penn

Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania

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Mercantilism

An economic system in which England controlled the trade of the colonies.

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Mayflower Compact

1620 — this document helped establish the idea of self government and majority rule in the Americas.

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house of burgesses

First representative assembly in the colonies (Virginia

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King George III

The British king during the American Revolution

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Northwest Ordinance

1787, established a government for the NORTHWEST TERRITORY and described rules that a territory would follow in order to become a state.

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Ben Franklin

Author, Publisher, Inventor and Diplomat

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Sam Adams

Colonial leader who was successful in getting others to oppose the British during the American Revolution, Organizer of the committees of correspondence. Part of the sons liberty.

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English Bill Of Rights

1689- English agreement they guaranteed certain rights to all englishmen… Influenced the American Bill Of Rights. Helped set up the representative Government.

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Patrick Henry

A Virginia patriot and an important person in the American revolution who said, “GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!”

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John Paul Jones

Father of the American navy who said, “I HAVE NOT YET BEGUN TO FIGHT”

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Declaration of Independence

1776- The year this document was created and signed, kicked off the American Revolution “BREAK UP LETTER”

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Battle of Saratoga

BATTLE:1776, TURNING PONT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION when France joined the side of the colonists

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Marquis de Lafayette

FRENCH hero of the American revolution and trusted advisor to George Washington

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Battle of Yorktown

1781, LAST major battle of the AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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Wentworth Chaswell

He fought at the battle of Saratoga; became the first elected African American in New Hampshire

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Mercy Otis Warren

Stirred colonists against British policies with her writings; she is considered the “first lady” of the American Revolution.

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James Armstead

An African American who became the first double spy in the American Revolution

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Crispus Attucks

African American who was the first person killed at the Boston Massacre

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Valley forge

The placee where general Washington spent the winter (1776)

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civil disobedience

the refusal to Obey a Governmment Law or Laws as a means of passive Resistance because of one’s moral conviction or belief

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Wife of John Adams (2nd President) and mother of JQ Adam’s (6th President); women’s rights advocate — “REMEMBER THE LADIES” letter to her husband John

Abigail Adams

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Wrote common sense and the crisis to encourage American Independence

Thomas Paine

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Rights that cannot be given up, taken away, or transferred… Life, Liberty, and the Persuit of happiness are some of those rights

Unalienable Rights

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The idea that Government should be based on the consent of the governed.

republicanism

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A Statement in which everyone, even elected officials MUST OBEY THE LAWS

Limited Government

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The Secretary of the treasury who supported the national bank system. A Fedralist who wrote most of the Fedralist Papers.

Alexander Hamilton

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—The Time Period when the CONSTITION was WRITTEN and RATIFIED.

Written - Drafted & Created Ratified/Ratification = Voted and approved into law.

1787-1788

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1794 — This Rebellion takes place and allows the National Government to prove that it has the power to enforce the law.

The Whiskey Rebellion

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First U.S Government; It was eventually a failure because IT CREATED A WEAK NATIONAL GOVERNMENT - Strong state Government.

Articles Of Confedration

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Series of essays about the nature of government by ALEXANDER HAMILTON, JAMES MADISON, AND JOHN JAY. Argued for ratification of the US Constution.

Federalist Papers

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A system of sharing power between the STATES and the NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.

Federalism

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People who opposed RARIFCATION OF THE COSTUTION

Anti-Federalists

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People who supported the RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION

Fedralists

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Agreement reached during the CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION that created the American System of government (a 2 house congress with the lower house based on the population and the upper house with equal representation)

The Great Compromise

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Agreement that the constutional convention that allowed slaves to count as 3/5th of a white person for represntation & Taxation.

The three-fifths compromise

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The branch of govenment that ENFORCES the laws made by congress and is led by the PRESIDENT of the United States.

Executive Branch

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The branch of government responsible for MAKING LAWS and is compromised of the senate and the house of represntatives

Legslative Branch

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The branch of government that is responsable for INTERPTING THE LAWS FOR ITS CONSTITUTIONALITY and is compromised of the supreme court and lesser courts

Judicial Branch

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The DIVISION of authority among the executive leglatlive and judicial branches of the US Government

Seperation of powers

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A Group of voters chosen by each state to elect the president and Vice President

Electroial college

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Those rights given to all under the bill of rights that cannot be taken away

Individual Rights

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Insisted on the protection of individual rights in the constution leading to the creation of the bill of rights

George Mason

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Each of the three branches of government that limits the power of the others

Checks and Balances

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The Idea that the power of the states should not be trampled on by the national government

States’ Rights

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Government in which the people have the power

Popular Sovereignty

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To change

Amend

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To Pass

Ratify

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The first 10 amendments to the constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties

Bill Of Rights

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Freedom Of Speech, Religion, press, right to assemble peacefully, and the right to petition

1st Amendment

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Right to bear arms 🔫

2nd Amendment

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No quartering of soldiers in private households during time of peace 🧑‍🏭🚫🏠

3rd Amendment

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No unlawful search and seizure 👮‍♀️🔎🚫🏠

4th Amendment

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Right to remain silent 🫢

5th Amendment

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Right to a free and speedy trial by jury

6th Amendment

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Jury trial in civil court 👨‍⚖️

7th Amendment

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No cruel or unusual punishment / Bail and punishment

8th Amendment

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Powers for the people (insurance clause)

9th Amendment

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Powers reserved for the states (states rights or federalist clause)

10th Amendment

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The year the MONROE DOCTORINE was written to establish that Europe should stay out of the Americas. (Westward Hemisphere)!

1823

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Thomas Jefferson

The AUTHOR of the DECLORATION OF INDEPENDENCE and the 3rd PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

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James Madison

Father of the American Constution and the Bill of Rights

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George Washington’s Farewell Address

GIVEN AT THE RETIREMENT from public life; HE URGED AMERICA TO ALWAYS REMAIN NEUTRAL TO OTHER COUNTRIES. Did not want political parties

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Alien & Sedition Acts

1798, PLACED RESTRICTIONS OF IMMIGRANTS in the country and RESTRICTED FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND THE PRESS for everyone.

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The Monroe Doctrine

The doctrine ESTABLISHED THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES regarding the WESTERN HEMISPHERE

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John Marshall

Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court who handed down the decision in the case of Marbury V. Madison

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Marbury V. Madison

1803, Supreme Court case that established the Idea of judicial Review

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James Monroe

5th President of the United States and the Author of the Monroe Doctrine

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Judicial review

The power of the Supreme Court to review laws and determine if they are constitutional or not

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McCulloch V. Maryland

1819, Supreme Court case that said a state could not tax a national bank thus increasing the power of the national government

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Gibbons V. Ogden

1824, Supreme Court case that said the federal government, not the states, had the power to regulate trade between the states

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Missouri Compromise

Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state: prohibited slavery north of Missouri maintaining balance between free and slave states in congress.

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1803

The year when the United States obtains the LOUSIANA PURCHASE from France and doubles the size of the country

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John Quincy Adams

Was the son of John Adams (2nd President of the US) elected as the 6th president, but his presidency is concidered a failure because of his inabillity to understand the needs of the “Common Man”

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Democracy

A form of government that is run for and by the people, giving the people the supreme power.

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Andrew Jackson

7th President of the United States who opposed a system of National Banks proposed by Alexander Haminton

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Jacksonian Democracy

The idea that as many people as possible should be able to vote (Not limiting sufferage to only the wealthy or well educated)

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The Doctrine of Nullificaion

The idea that states had the right to reject any law passed by congress

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John C. Calhoun

Vice President of the United States, creator of the Doctrine of Nullification, a strong supporter of states’ rights

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Henry Clay

Politician known as “The great compromiser”

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Spoils System

The practice of giving Government Jobs to Political Supporters

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Tariff

Tax on imported goods (Goods brought into the country)

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Manifest Destiny

Idea that America had a right to all of the land between the east and the West coasts.

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Indian Removal Act

1830, Indians east of the Mississippi River were to moved to new lands in the west

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Trail Of Tears

Forced journey of the Cherokee Indians in 1838 - 1839 from their land in the east to the west

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago

Ended the war with Mexico and the U.SS acquired the Mexican Cession

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Free Enterprise

The freedom of Private Businesses to operate competitively for profit with Minimal government regulation

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Henry David Thoreau

Author of the book Walden, who believed in the Transcendenntalism and civil rights

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Elizabeth Cady Santon

Leader of movement to give women the right to vote

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Seneca Falls Convention

1848, women’s right meeting which proclames “all men and women are created equal”

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Temperance Movement

A campaign against the sale or drinking of alchohol

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Transcendentalism

Belief that people are born with an inner sense that enables them to recognize moral truths

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Sectionalism

A strong sense of loyalty to a state or section in staid of to the whole country

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Protective Tariff

Tax placed on goods from another country to protect American manufactuers

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Eli Whitney

Inventor of the cotton gin which made the production of cotton cheaper and created a larger demand for slaves — introduced interchangeable parts as well

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