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second great awakening, 1800

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US History

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1

second great awakening, 1800

Protestant religious revivals that began out of concern of evangelical infidelity- basically stressing philosophy of salvation through good actions and tolerance

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2

louisiana purchase, 1803

purchased territory for $15 mil from Napoleon because Jefferson wanted the Mississippi and New Orleans (valuable for trade). justified by loose constitution interpretation

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3

lewis and clark, 1804

Lewis and Clark commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the LP, ended up going to the Pacific. Produced maps and scientific discoveries as well as promoted later settlement of the land

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4

Marbury vs Madison, 1806

Supreme court case that established the right for the court to review the constitutionality of laws; last minute federalist appointments by Adams resulted in drama. Marbury was one of the "midnight judges" appointed and Jefferson refusing his commission resulted in a suit, resulting in the court saying that everything was unconstitutional. TLDR established judicial review

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5

war of 1812

a war between the US and England, who was trying to interfere with American trade with France. Driven by territorial power (US wanted control over Canada and Florida). Treaty of Ghent in 1814 established peace (and the US returning florida to spain) before Jackson's troops defeated the British in new orleans. strengthened US nationalism

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6

Clay's American System 1816

Henry Clay proposed a 3 part plan to advance the economy; included protective tariffs to raise revenue and build transportation systems, a national bank with national currency, and internal improvements to promote growth (this part was vetoed).

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7

Second US bank 1816

First Bank's charter expired in 1811, leading to economic instability and inflation; Second Bank existed until Jackson vetoed the recharter and it expired in 1836

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8

monroe doctrine, 1823

John Quincy Adams issued during Monroe's presidency, basically saying that europe should stay out of the Western Hemisphere and couldn't recolonize because many south american countries were gaining independance. first major us foreign policy doctrine

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9

Era of good feelings, 1817

term used for the period of strong nationalism/economic growth/territorial expansion. Democratic Republicans were the only major party; this is before north/south tensions

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10

missouri comromise, 1820

put together by Henry Clay to determine Missouri's statehood: admitted as a slave state while maine was admitted as free, slavery in the LP was banned above the 36 30 latitude

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11

mccoulloch vs maryland, 1819

upheld the power of congress to charter a bank as a gov agency w/o state tax. Supported the idea of implied powers and promoted federal power

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12

Indian removal/indian removal act, 1830

Carried out under Jackson's presidency, this was the process of forcibly removing native people from their land and relocating them west of the mississippi. Cherokee Trail of Tears was their removal from GA to OK, roughly 1/4 (4000) died

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13

jacksonian democracy, 1820

political culture of white male citizens. Celebrated the "self-made man," rejected ideas that leaders need to be economically elite, american dream, etc

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14

Nullification Process

45% protective tariff passed to stop British economic interference. Southern planters feared it would raise all costs and opposed it. The Tariff of 1828 caused VP John Calhoun to propose that individual states could null national tariffs.

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15

Bank war, 1832

Jackson's rivals Henry Clay (KY senator) and Nicholas Biddle (national bank) wanted to recharter the bank 4 years early. Ended in Jackson destroying the bank in 1833 after he won the 1832 election, saw his victory as a result of him vetoing the bank

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16

Eli Whitney's cotton gin, 1793

removed seeds from cotton and sped up the process, making it easier to produce. As a result of this, cotton crops as well as slavery increased

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17

Interchangeable Parts, 1799

also credited to Eli Whitney; standardized parts in manufacturing resulted in easier replacements and repairs. First used to produce muskets for the US gov

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18

Lowell Factory, 1813

Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in MA that basically became a blueprint for others at its time. Its working conditions and wages declined through the 30s/40s as it faced increasing competition.

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19

National/Cumberland Road, 1811

first highway built by US gov, stretched from Maryland to Illinois and functioned as a shipping route from the north to the west

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20

internal improvements, 1820

program for building roads/canals/bridges/etc. Dispute over the constitution giving the gov the power to fund the project.

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21

canals, 1820

an alternative to overland and steamboat transport of goods. Faster and more cost efficient; most famous was the Erie Canal in NY, which was connected to the great lakes

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22

Irish and German immigration, 1830

Irish immigrated due to the potato famine as poor peasants, supplied wok for canal and railroad construction. Germans came due to economic distress but usually had the funds to buy farms, typically in the northwest

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23

nativism, 1840

anti-Catholic and anti-immigration idea due to the numbers of Irish Catholics.

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24

know-nothings/American Party, 1850

basically a hate group disguised as a political party created by nativists before the Civil War. anti-catholic and -immigrant values used to gain power, "know-nothings" because members feigned innocence. Some success in state and local elections before sectionalism overpowered nativism.

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25

cult of domesticity/seperate spheres, 1800

19th century belief that women belong in the kitchen (not the lab). Ideal made possible by the IR/separation of work and home

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26

Nat Turner's Insurrection, 1831

Slave uprising led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument set to free his people. Killed 60 white people in South Hampton, Virginia, which led to 100 black people being killed in return. As a result fugitive slave laws were strengthened

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27

Temperance Movement, 1800

the absence of alcohol as a result of the second Great Awakening. Strong social and political movement.

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28

Mormons/Joseph Smith, 1830

Smith founded the Mormon religion in NY, claiming to have found sacred writings. in 1843 he announced that God sanctioned the split of the church. Mormons were shunned due to this, Smith died and the Mormon church was passed to Brigham Young, who founded a community for the church near Salt Lake (later Utah).

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29

McGuffey's Reader, 1836

Books widely used in schools across the country as reading material for children. Expressed values of morality, hard work, religion, patriotism, etc

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30

Seneca Falls, 1848

First women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Declaration of Rights and Sentiments rewrote that "all men and women are created equal," also advocated for suffrage and rejected separate spheres

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31

gag rule, 1836

procedure in the House of Representatives that tabled antislavery procedures so they couldn't be debated. Shows growing division between slaver/antislavery

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32

Dorothea Dix, 1820

reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the mentally ill, helped improve conditions in jails and asylums, persuaded some states to take responsibility for mentally ill people and served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union

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33

Hudson river school of art, 1820

group of landscape painters influenced by the European romantic movement, painted landscapes of upstate NY and the Hudson river valley

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34

utopian communities, 1830

hopes for societal perfection among evangelical Christians and secular humanists, promoted gender and racial equality as well as socialism. Examples of Brook Farm and Oneida

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35

Transcendentalism, 1830

19th century intellectual movement, emphasized looking internally for guidance vs formal religion. Mind over matter, individualism, souls are all a part of the Great Spirit, self-reliance; exaggerated form of individualism

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