Earth Science Q2 Exam

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128 Terms

1

Science

a way of knowing investigating the physical world through observation & experiments

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Earth Science

Study of Earth its place in the universe

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Geology, Hydrology, Atmospheric science, Enviornmental Science, Astronomy

5 main branches of earth science

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4

scientific inquiry

identifying correlations 4 other patterns," then investigating testing possible causes that might explain correlation

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5

model

any rep. that serves as a tool for thinking about visualizing natural phenomena or to develop solutions to problems

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hypothesis

a possible explanation for a phenomenon that can be tested to determine whether it is supported by evidence

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7

experiment

a way to test a hypothesis using a controlled procedure that produced data

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peer review

gives scientists an opportunity to evaluate the validity of a scientific investigation

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9

theory

a broader explanation that is already supported by large body of evidence

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10

law

escriptions of phenomenon that are universally accepted and are often expressed mathematically

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11

engineering

field that applies scientific knowledge, math, and human innovation to design solutions to problems

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12

map

 a visual representation of data that illustrates some portion of the world or universe

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13

latitude

run east-west, measured north or south of the Equator (Flatitude)

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14

longitude

run north-south, measured West or East of the Prime Meridian

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15

equator

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prime meridian

runs through Greenwich, England

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17

international date line

The line of longitude on the opposite side of Earth from the PM

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18

GPS

global positioning system - a network of satellites receivers that collects various types of data to make maps

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19

GIS

geographic information systems- computer systems that capture/ compile, layer different types of spatial data to make mops

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20

contour lines

to mark points that share the same values topography the study of landforms other structures on Earth's surface

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21

topography

the study of landforms other structures on Earth's surface

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22

contour interval

the change in elevation between each isoline on a top. map

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23

Geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere

4 spheres of earth

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24

Innercore, outtercore, mantle, crust

4 layers of geosphere

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lithosphere

the crust in the uppermost mantle

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26

97.5

% of saltwater on Earth

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27

71

% of surface is oceans

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cryosphere

water in it’s frozen state (1.8 or Earth’s water)

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0.64

% of freshwater

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30

atmosphere

mixture of gases-mostly nitrogen oxygen, with smaller amounts of argon, co2, 4 other gases

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Troposphere

where is most of the atmosphere located

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32

biosphere

all living things

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biodiversity

variety of life

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systems

 a combination of interacting parts that form a complex whole

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35

cycles

a sequential process that returns to the start and repeats

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36

gradualism

slow change over long pd of time

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37

catastrophism

rapid events in short times

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38

threshold effect

slow or no initial change to the environment

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feedback mechanism

change alters another system component, amplifying original effect

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40

-people have caused great changes in environment

-Extinction, pollution, changes to atmosphere

-Humans are making permanent changes

human impacts to Earth’s systems

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Anthropocene

new time pd. argued by scientists

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water cycle

 continuing cycling of water through Earth's spheres

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carbon cycle

 Describes how carbon is exchanged among the 4 spheres

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nitrogen cycle

describes the cycling of Nitrogen through Earth's spheres

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algae bloom

Algae dies and decays 4 is eaten by bacteria that use up oxygen in the water- leads to fish kills

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Hydrogen and Helium

Composition of earth’s early atmosphere

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outgassing

 release of volatile substances, hydrogen methane, from Earth's mantle

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78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases

composition of modern atmosphere

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49

barometric pressure

atmospheric pressure- the weight of the atmosphere per unit area

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50

barometer

instrument used to measure barometric pressure

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51

KNOW THIS

density and pressure decrease with elevation

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storms

low pressure

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clear

high pressure

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54

(closest to furthest) Troposphere, Ozone layer, stratosphere, mesosphere, exosphere

layers of Earth’s atmosphere

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acid precipitation

Sulfur nitrogen oxides combine with water vapor in the atmosphere to produce atmospheric aid

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Toxic volatiles

vaporates readily and escapes into atmosphere-dioxin from burning of certain chemicals such as PVC

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particulates

any small pieces of solid matter such as dust or soot

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aerosols

small particles larger than a molecule 4 suspended in air

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fly ash

minerals that escape as coal burns

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smog

a brown haze that forms when ozone reads with car exhaust

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CFC’s

organic compounds containing chlorine and flourine

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Montreal Protocol

signed by VS in 1987-global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer

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63

Weather

the state of the atmosphere at a given place and time

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64

climate

the characteristic of a region, particularly temp and precipitation averaged over several decades

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light

Behaves like a wave and particle

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electromagnetic radiation

made of waves

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albedo

reflectivity of a surface

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68

scattering

light scatters

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69

greenhouse effect

Earth’s surface aborbs light energy

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70

temperature

measure of the average kinetic energy within a substance

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isotherms

lines that connect areas of the same temp

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heat

energy transferred from a higher temp to a lower temp

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conduction

the transport of heat by direct collisions among atoms or molecules

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convection

distributes heat through atmosphere

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advection

horizontal movement of heat

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latent heat

(stored heat) energy released or abosrbed when a substance changes from one state to another

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specific heat

the amount of energy needed to raise the temp; bigger effect on climate

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seasons

caused by the tilt of Eath’s axis as it revolvs around the sun

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79

Humidity

the amount of water vapor in the air

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absolute humidity

the mass of water vapor in air

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relative humidity

the amount of water vapor in the air relative to the maz hold at a given temp

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dew point

when water condenses

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83

dew

tiny drops of water that cool on earths surface

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dew gets to below freezing

how does frost form

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85

Oropraphic lifting, frontal wedging, convection

3 ways clouds form

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86

fog

cloud that roms at or very close to the ground level; occurs near bodies of water

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87

Rain, Snow, Sleet, Hail

types of precipitation

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warm air

less dense

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cold air

more dense

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isobars

lines on a weather map connecting point of equal pressure

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jet stream

narrow bands of high alt winds

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Coriolis effect

caused by earth’s reflection- deflects wind

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air mass

large body of air within the same temp and humidity at any given altitude

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Warm, Cold, Occulated, Stationary

4 types of fronts

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95

how do thunderstorms form

dense cold fronts forces the warm air up

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96

Central Florida

where are thunderstorms most common

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97

tornado

small short-lived funnel-shaped storm that protrudes from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud

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98

Central Great Plains

where do most tornadoes occur

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99

Tropical Wave→ disturbance→ depression→ storm

progression of cyclone formation

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100

eye

dead calm- the center

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