Chapter #5 Forming a Government

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George Washington

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US history

38 Terms

1

George Washington

Served as President of the Constitutional Convention and first President of the United States

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2

Daniel Shays

Revolutionary War Veteran Head of Shay's Rebellion Led several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail

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3

John Jay

First chief justice of the Supreme Court One of the writers of The Federalist Papers

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4

Ben Franklin

Oldest member of the Constitutional Convention at age 80'

Delegate from Pennsylvania

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5

Alexander Hamilton

One of the writers of The Federalist Papers

Founder of the Federalist party

He was the New York delegate to the Constitutional Convention

A famous musical on Broadway about him is now a sell-out show!

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6

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution"

Federalist leader

4th President of the United States

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7

Roger Sherman

He helped draft The Great Compromise (Connecticut Plan) that determined how states would be represented in Congress

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8

Patrick Henry

"Give me Liberty or Give me Death!"

Anti-federalist (the new Constitution did not guarantee certain freedoms)

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9

Edmund Randolf

Governor of Virginia Proposed The Large State (Virginia Plan) at the Constitutional Convention

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10

John Locke

English philosopher during The Enlightenment who argued that people have natural rights

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11

Convention

A meeting of delegates in Philadelphia

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12

Tariff

A tax on imported goods

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13

Constitution

A document which spells out the principles and laws by which a government runs

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14

Suffrage

the right to vote

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15

Confederation

an alliance of republics or states

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16

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution

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17

Amendment

A change in, or addition to, a constitution or law

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18

Northwest Land Ordinance

Dealt with the land in the future states of OH, IN, IL, MI, WI, and MN

This divided land into 6-mile x 6-mile townships

Provided for the building of public schools in each new township

Slavery was outlawed in any new states north of the Ohio River

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19

Anti-federalists

People who were AGAINST the Constitution

These people wanted STATES to keep their power

People who feared the new Constitution did not guarantee enough RIGHTS or freedoms!

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20

Bill of Rights

The First 10 amendments to the Constitution

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21

Ratify

To approve or formally ok something

9/13 states were needed to approve the new Constitution

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22

3/5 Compromise

The agreement at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress

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23

Federalism

A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments

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24

Popular Sovereignty

This means that the people (the "populous") are free (or "sovereign") to vote and govern themselves

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25

Checks and Balances

A system that divides each branch of government to keep their powers equal

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26

The New Jersey Plan

The proposal by the small states at the Constitutional Convention

Called for 3 branches of government

Called for equal representation of each state (1 vote) in Congress, regardless of the state's population.

This plan allowed STATES to keep most of the power

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27

The Virginia Plan

"Large state" plan for the new constitution; favored by the most populous states

Called for 3 branches of government

Called for representation in both houses of Congress to be based on a state's population

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28

The Connecticut Plan

"The Great Compromise" plan

The plan was acceptable to both large and small states

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29

Magna Carta

Require British monarchs to obey the same laws as their people

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30

The Virginia Statute

The first state law to give religious freedom and separation of church and state to its people

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31

Post-Revolutionary War Debt

Money owed to other countries and creditors after the American Revolution

Solutions Were These:

  1. Sell land in the NW Territory

  2. Collect property taxes

  3. Tax imported goods

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32

Constitutional Convention

A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787

A meeting to REVISE the Articles of Confederation

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33

New York City

First capital of the United States

President Washington governed the new United States from NYC - the first nation's capital

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34

John Adams

America's first Vice-President

America's second President

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35

The Federalist Papers

A series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay

Written under the penname "publius"

Published in newspapers and used to convince readers to adopt the new constitution

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36

English Bill of Rights

Required English monarchs to get the ok of parliament when making decisions

The first use of checks and balances

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37

The Iroquois League

A political confederation of five Native American tribes (the Seneca, Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Onondaga)

Served as a model of representative government for the new United States

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38

Articles of Confederation

The first constitution of the United States

Problems:

  1. States only had 1 vote

  2. No national currency $

  3. No president/executive

  4. No national court system

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