AP Psychology - Vocabulary 10

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parallel processing

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41 Terms

1

parallel processing

processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions

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2

blindsight

a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it

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3

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment; a form of inattentional blindness

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4

Young-Helmholtz Theory

the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color

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5

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

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6

color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

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7

audition

the sense or act of hearing

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8

frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)

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9

pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency

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10

middle ear

the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

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11

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves travelling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses

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12

inner ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

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13

place theory

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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14

frequency theory

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch (also called temporal theory)

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15

conduction hearing loss

a less common form of hearing loss, caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

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16

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptors cells or to the auditory nerves; the most common form of hearing loss, also called nerve deafness

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17

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

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18

gate-control theory

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain

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19

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

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20

kinesthesis

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

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21

vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

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22

electroencephalogram

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

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23

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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24

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. These scans show brain anatomy

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25

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function as well as structure

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26

plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

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27

lesion

tissue destruction. A brain _____ is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.

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28

reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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29

CT or CAT Scan (computed tomography)

a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body

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30

relative size

smaller objects appear to be further away

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31

relative brightness

brighter objects appear closer than dimmer

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32

height in field

objects higher in our field of vision appear to be farther away

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33

superposition or interposition

objects that are perceived to overlap or obscure another object appear to be closer

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34

linear perspective

parallel lines appear to converge as they move farther into the distance

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35

figure-ground

perceptual process where some objects seem prominent, while others recede into the background

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36

proximity

perceiving objects close to each other as forming a group

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37

continuity

perceiving smoothly flowing or continuous forms rather than disrupted or discontinuous ones

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38

closure

closing up or completing figures that are not, in fact, complete

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39

ambiguous figures

figures that can be interpreted as two or more different images

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40

impossible figures

figures that represent objects that cannot exist in the real world

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41

perspective paradox

figures which exhibit tension between two or more contrary perspectives

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