Parasitology Final

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Ideal parasite

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1

Ideal parasite

move from a parasitic relationship to a commensal relationship

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2

Example of an ideal parasite

T. saginata

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3

What is parasitism?

a symbiotic relationship between two different species, where one, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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4

What can be considered as an extreme environment?

the host

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5

Parasite habitats

vertebrate alimentary canal and lumens; tissues

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6

What are the three basic types of adaptations?

behavioral, physiological (LC), and structural (morphological)

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7

list of morphological adaptations

size, shape, attachment, body surface, reproductive system

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8

size

larger to house reproductive system

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9

list of shape adaptations

  • long and thin: dense connective tissue (D. medinensis)

  • flat and broad: cling to host tissue (F. buski and T.solium)

  • round: lumen dwelling (W. bancrofti)

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10

list of attachment adaptations

  • suckers/acetabula

  • biological holdfast

  • hooks

  • teeth

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11

parasites with suckers/acetabula

Cestodes and Trematodes

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12

parasites with biological holdfast

Protozoa and Giardia

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13

parasites with hooks

Cestodes and Acanthocephalans

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14

list of body surface adaptations

  • cuticle (resistance to host natural & specific immunity)

  • absorptive surface (absorb nutrients via tegument)

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15

parasites with cuticle

Nematodes

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16

parasites with absorptive surface

tapeworms

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17

methods of absorptive surface

  • active transport

  • facilitated diffusion

  • simple diffusion

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18

example of dioecious reproductive system (2 separate sexes)

nematodes; A. lumbricoides

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19

examples of a hermaphroditic parasite

  • Cestodes; T. saginata

  • Trematodes

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20

parasite with reproductive cyst

E. histolytica

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21

complex life cycle

allow sexual and asexual reproduction

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22

parasites with complex life cycles

Schistosomes and Plasmodium

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23

parasites with bioaccumulation

D. latum

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24

parasite with a parasitic and free living life cycle

Strongyloides stercoralis

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25

what is nonspecific immunity?

differentiates self from non self

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26

aspects of nonspecific immunity

phagocytosis and inflammation

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27

what is inflammation?

movement and actions of WBCs at the site of injury/infection

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28

steps of inflammation?

  • margination (adhesion)

  • diapedesis (migration of cells through the walls of blood capillaries into the tissue spaces)

  • chemotaxis (movement)

  • ingestion

  • digestion

  • granuloma formation

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29

specific immunity mediated by

T-cells and B-cells

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30

humoral (immunoglobulin or antibody) = ?

B-cells

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31

cell mediated immunity = ?

T-cells

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32

maturation of T-cells location

thymus

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33

maturation of B-cells location in mammals

bone marrow

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34

maturation of B-cells location in birds

bursa

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35

parasitic infection can result in

disease

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36

results of disease

  • chronic infection

  • recovery

  • death

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37

chronic infection

immunity to trickle infections

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38

recovery

immunity to reinfection

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39

list of intestinal nematodes

  • Ascaris lumbricoides (giant round worm)

  • Necator americanus (hookworm)

  • Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)

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40

list of blood and tissue parasites

  • Schistosoma mansoni (Bilharzia)

  • Trypanosoma gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

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41

blood and tissue parasites have

greater pathology

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42

Immune response to Ascaris

avoids the immune system by living in the small intestines (feeds on what we eat, not us)

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43

Immune response to hookworms (Necator)

some inflammation due to partial tissue invader

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44

Immune response to Trichinella

tissue invader; good immune response, but leave larvae behind

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45

Ascaris lumbricoides location

  • larvae in lungs

  • adults in small intestines

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46

Ascaris pathology

blockage of small intestine, bile duct, mouth and nose, appendix

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47

Trichinella spiralis adults cause

severe intestinal inflammation - self-cure - worms expelled in 14 days

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48

Trichinenella spiralis larvae travel to and are sequestered in

muscle cells

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49

Who lives in the most extreme environment?

Trichinella - deep in the mucosa of the small intestine

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50

what type of immunity is most important in Trichinella expulsion?

cell mediated immunity (T-cells)

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51

which T-cell is most important in Trichinella expulsion?

Th1 cell

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52

Trichinella spiralis immune response mechanism:

  1. worm antigens

  2. Cell stimulation (Th2, Antibody in lymph node, Th1)

  3. antibody and Th1 cell locate antigens

  4. Th1 secrete lymphokines (attracts immune response; stimulatory, chemotactic, and arming)

  5. Inflammatory cells activated (monocytes-macrophages target antigens)

  6. worms move down the S.I. until expulsion

  7. larvae left behind

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53

Primary immune response of Trichinella spiralis (initial exposure)

small numbers of Th1/Th2/B-cells that recognize T.spiralis = expulsion in 14 days

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54

Secondary immune response of Trichinella spiralis (secondary exposure)

MEMORY Th1/ Th2/ B-cells that recognize T.spiralis = expulsion in 7 days

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55

Trichinella moves to new tissue…

inflammation follows

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56

which experiment proves molecular mimicry by worm transplants between host?

Smithers’ Experiment

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57

molecular mimicry

antigen masking

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58

immunity against schistosomes

antibody and WBCs most effective

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59

Smithers’ experiment conclusion

  • worms survive by using molecular mimicry by acquiring blood group antigens on their outer surface

  • surface of schistosomes is comprised of novel glycans

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60

Smithers’ experiment transfer outcomes:

  • infected monkey → normal monkey = worms survive

  • infected monkey → anti-mouse monkey = worms survive

  • infected mouse → normal monkey = worms survive but egg laying was interrupted

  • infected mouse → anti-mouse monkey = worms killed

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61

Trypanosoma gambiensis pathology

  • African sleeping sickness

  • gains access to the CNS → perivascular cuffing

  • confusion → inactivity → coma → death

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62

why does Trypanosome parasitemia fluctuate?

  • specific antibody against glycoprotein coat and changing glycoprotein coat

  • alternate expression of genes controlling variant specific surface glycoproteins (VSG coat)

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63

Is Trypanosoma manipulating the immune system?

yes

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64

What benefit is it to the parasite to manipulate the immune system?

population control

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65

which parasites have immuno-avoidance?

Ascaris & hookworm

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66

which parasite is dependent on life cycle development?

Trichinella

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67

which parasite use molecular mimicry?

Schistosomes

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68

which parasite have antigenic variation?

Trypanosomes

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