Physiology Lab - Cellular Physiology

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39 Terms
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anatomy

study of the structure and description of the human body

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physisology

study of biological functions and processes of the human body under basal conditions

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basal

normal

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cellular physiology

study of the biochemical and biophysical processes occurring within cells

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systemic physiology

study of the regulation of physiological processes within the body by homeostatic reflexes

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pathophysiology

study of abnormal biochemical and biophysical processes that occur in disease

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homeostasis

the dynamic constancy of the internal physiological environment while buffering the challenges of the external environment

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Feedback control mechanism steps

  1. stimulus produces change in variable

  2. change detected by receptor/sensor

  3. input: information sent along afferent pathway

  4. output: information sent along efferent pathway

  5. response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis

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Lay terms of feedback mechanism

stimulus, receptor, control center, effector, response

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Negative feedback system

response of the control system is negative or opposing to the stimulus; most systems in the body

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Example of negative feedback system

Stimulus: weather increased body temp Receptor: thermoreceptor Control center: hypothalamus Effector: sweat glands Response: sweating

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positive feedback system

the response of the control system is positive or promoting the stimulus; act to amplify the initial response to the stimulus; continues until the stimulus is removed

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Positive feedback system examples

child birth and blood coagulation

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plasma membrane

serves as an external cell barrier that is selectively permeable

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amphipathic

both hydrophyllic and hydrophobic

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phosphate heads

hydrophillic

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fatty acid tails

hydrophobic

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molecules that can cross plasma membrane without assistance

  • small uncharged molecules

  • non-polar molecules

  • fatty molecules

  • water (slowly; fast transfer requires mechanism)

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Passive transport

substance moves down its concentration gradient, from area of high concentration to low concentration

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Simple diffusion

natural movement from high to low concentrations; unassisted transport (no integral protein)

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Facilitated diffusion

substances passively moves down its concentration gradient with the help of a protein molecule

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channel mediated

special transport proteins create hydrophilic tunnels in the lipid bilayer; facilitate the transport of small, polar molecules and ions

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carrier mediated

special transport proteins carry the substance across; facilitate transport of large polar molecules

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active transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient

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primary active transport

carrier proteins pump the molecules against the concentration gradient; direct use of cellular energy

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secondary active transport

downhill movement of one molecule drives the uphill movement of another molecule; indirect use of energy (uses established concentration gradient to power its transport)

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vesicular transport

bulk transport of substances into or out of the cell

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endocytosis

substances are taken into the cell by modifying the plasma membrane structure

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phagocytosis

cell eating; cell engulfs large particle by forming projecting psuedopods around it and enclosing it within the membrane sac (phagosome)

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pinocytosis

cell drinking; enfolding of plasma membrane carries a drop of extracellular fluid containing solutes into the cell in tiny membrane-bound vesicle

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exocytosis

substances are released from the cell into the extracellular environment; most secretion processes

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osmosis

passive diffusion of water against concentration gradient through plasma membrane (hypotonic to hypertonic)

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hypotonic solution

lower solute concentration, higher water concentration, net movement of water out of this side

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hypertonic

higher solute concentration, lower water concentration, net movement of water toward this side

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isotonic

equal solute and solvent concentration on both sides; water molecules continue to cross membrane but no net movement

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tonicity

measure of potential difference in osmotic pressure gradient of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane

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outside of cell is hypertonic to inside of cell

cause the blood to shrivel

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outside of cell is hypotonic to inside of cell

causes the blood to lyse

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epigenetics

mechanisms by which genes can be switched on and off but genes themselves are not altered

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