AP Psych Modules 1-4 Vocab

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Structuralism

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56 Terms

1

Structuralism

uses introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

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2

Functionalism

explored how mental and behavioral processes function

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3

Behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science and (2) should study behavior without reference to mental processes

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4

Humanistic psychology

emphasizes potential for humans to grow

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5

Cognitive neuroscience

study of brain activity linked with cognition

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6

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

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7

Nature-nurture issue

the debate over relative contribution between genetics vs. experience

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8

Natural selection

the principle that the traits that contributing towards reproduction and survival will be passed down

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9

Evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of the body and mind (natural selection)

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10

Behavior genetics

study of power and limits of environmental influences

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11

Culture

enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions passed down from one group of people to the next

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12

Positive psychology

scientific study of human functioning-- primary goal is to help individuals thrive

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13

Level of analysis

differing complementary views for analyzing any phenomenon

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14

Biopsychosocial approach

integrated approach that involves biological, psychological, and social levels of analysis

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15

Basic research

purse science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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16

Applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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17

Counseling psychology

assists people with problems in living and in achieving a greater well-being

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18

Clinical psychology

studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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19

Psychiatry

used by physicians who provide medical treatments and psychological therapy for psychological disorders

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20

Community psychology

studies how people interact with social environments

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21

Testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving information instead of rereading

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22

SQ3R

study method with 5 steps-- Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

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23

Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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24

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning a outcome, that one would have foreseen it (“I knew it all along!”)

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25

Critical Thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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26

Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors/events.

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27

Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

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28

Operational Definition

A carefully-worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study.

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29

Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participant and situations.

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30

Case Study

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth.

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31

Naturalistic Observation

A descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations

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32

Survey

A descriptive technique for obtaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group.

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33

Population

All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

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34

Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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35

Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.

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36

Correlation Coefficient

A statistical index of the relationship between two things from -1.000 to +1.000

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37

Scatterplot

A graphed cluster of dots, each representing the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.

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38

Regression toward the mean

The tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to regress toward the average.

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39

Experiment

An research method where a researcher manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect.

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40

Experimental Group

The group exposed to the treatment, to one version of the independent variable.

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41

Control Group

The group not exposed to the treatment, serves as a comparison for evaluating the effects of the treatment.

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42

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, minimizing differences.

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43

Double-Blind Procedure

A procedure in which both the participants and staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies.

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44

Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; an effect on behavior caused by administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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45

Independent Variable

The factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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46

Dependent Variable

The outcome measured; a variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.

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47

Confounding Variable

A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect.

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48

Informed Consent

Giving potential participants information about a study, letting them choose to participate or not.

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49

Debriefing

The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to participants.

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50

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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51

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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52

Median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

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53

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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54

Standard Deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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55

Normal Curve

a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes

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56

Statistical Significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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