Unit 3: Socialization

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140 Terms

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Socializing

Lifelong process, learn knowledge, skills, attitudes to prosper in culture, process through which identity is developed, is they key to development if an individual and necessary to the continuation of society and affects every aise thé of our lives

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sociological perspective

Learn rules, attitudes, behaviours considered acceptable

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Psychological perspective

Development of human personality and acquisition of personal characteristics (uniqueness)

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Anthropological perspective ie marriage, family, household

Means through which permanent human societies are produced,

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Primary Socialization

Early childhood, learn to use language, eat, hygiene, emotions, understand gender roles, learn basics of primary norms/values of society

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Secondary socialization

Adapt to environment, occurs after childhood, learn to function in groups, expectations, workplace, parents, friends

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Anticipatory socialization

Ability to think ahead and act accordingly

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Resocialization

Deliberate attempt by society to replace aspects of an Individuals socialization with new learnings

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Agents of Socialization

Refer to different veichles that contribute socialization, do not always give the same messages, provide conflicting information at times

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Six agents of socialization

Family, mass media, peers, religion, school, work place

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Beginnings of written language

Earliest evidence appears to be approx. 5000 years old

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Pictography

First stage, series of drawings placed side by side to form sentences, ie hieroglyphs

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Ideography

A abstract ideas could not be portrayed by pictures, symbols were introduced

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Phonography

Symbols linking to the sound of the word, some symbol used to represent same sound in different words this was a major breakthrough

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Non verbal communication

Vsisible signs of something invisible, culturally determined

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Body language

Learned behaviour, influenced by culture, most commonly used forms are eye contact, tone of voice, gestures, posture, facial expression etc. I

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Proximity

Represents the distance between people who are communicating, concept of personal space, culturally determined

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Sign Language

Usually involves use of hands, deaf people convey words and letters using hand motion/gestures

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Verbal communication

Written words, clear, concise

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Oral

Speaking, listening, not listening equals a lack of communication

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Written

Not as immediate or sensory rich as oral

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Barriers in communication

An obstacle that keeps a message from getting through as needed

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The five barriers if communication

Lack of common vocabulary, unnecessary words, jargon. Emotionalism, fear

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Issues in communication

Something wrong with one of the components of communication, sender or receiver issues

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Barriers by senders

Wrong level of language, disorganized thoughts, message too long or short, wrong mediums, incorrect information

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Barrier by the receiver

Lack of concentration, lack of understanding

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Anthropological Perspective

Linguistic anthropology, brain size increases, become organized in way allowing abstract throughts, exchange of information, the Broca’s area controls speech and is found in ancestors 1.8 million years ago, less reliance on body lab gauge and reduces pote into on for misunderstanding

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Language

A sophisticated communication system that includes a vocabulary of lexicon as well as a set if rules of grammar outlining its proper use

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Linguistics

Scientific study if language and its structure

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Body language

Means of communicating information or attitudes in a non verbal manner

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Open

Can evolve and résultats in new terms, creates problems in other languages, website, e commerce

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Discrete

Distinct messages that do not blend with other messages, ie

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3 months - 1 year

Babbling, series of meainingless sounds, imitate, sounds, pitches and tones

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1-3 years

Learn complicated structure, speak 2-3 words sentences, increases, ideographic sentiment p

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5 years

Acquired basic rules of the language, but lack complete vocabulary and ability to apply grounded rules

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Learning Theory

Acquired through conditioning process children experience as they grow up, reward vs punishment, rewarded w positive reinforcement when speaking , more the parent speaks the more easy is it for child to pick up language

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Innate Acquisition Theory (Chomsky)

Chi Doreen are born with innate or natural ability de to acquire language and that the ability to use and comprehend language develops with age, brain has neural system called language acquisition, Anatomically prepared for speech at birth through environment, understand structure, idea of universal grammar ie nouns, verbs

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Sociological

Study body language as means of communication, examine tools of communication, verbal (face to face, TV, film), written (text,email,other form of written message), explore new tools, means of communication, affect and influence ways we communicate, explore limitations in means of communication, hindrances to com, how it can affect our development as a society, how advancements in the means of communication have changed society

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Only Child

Centre of attention, rival of parent, overprotected, spoiled, like adult attention, difficulty w sharing, uses adult language

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Oldest child

Learn to share, expectations are high, meant to set an example, authoritarian, helpful, turn to father

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Second child

Always someone else slightly ahead, competitive, rebellious, rivalry, squeezed out of significance, tempered, take it or leave it, fighter if injustice, lack of belonging

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Youngest child

Many mothers and father, never dethroned, typically wants to be bigger , huge plans that never work out, stays baby, spoiled

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Twins

One usually stronger more active, one is older and has more responsibility, struggle with identity, comparison, conditioned to be the same

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Ghost child

Rainbow, born after death of another child, overprotected, exploited, rebel

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Adopted child ,

Spoiled, low expectations and responsibility treated differently to compensate for loss of biological parents

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Only boy

Prove masculinity

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Only girl

Protected, more stereotypically feminine or masculine

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All boys

One takes on more feminine gender roles

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All girls

One takes in more masculine gender roles

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Nature

Refers to traits, capacities, and limitation that each person inherits genetically from his or her parents at the movement or conception includes eye colour, athletic ability, diseases, memory, body type

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Nurture

Refers to all of the environmental influences that come into play after conception, beginning with the mothers health during pregnancy and running all through one’s experience with growth, development, and life in the outside world, can include experience of family, culture, school, community

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Inherited aspects

We inherit 23 chromosomes from fathers sperm, and 23 from mothers ovum, 46 chromosomes line up and make 23 matching pairs, contain 100s of genes, each possess a piece of information that guides us from embryo to maturity

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Environmental Factors impacting fetus

Nutrition, emotional state of mother, disease, drugs and alcohol

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Nutrition

Malnutrition = smaller birth widget, susceptible to disease, cognitive development

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Emotional state if mother

Stress, anxiety leads to poor sleep and eating habits

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Disease

Can leads to defects

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Drugs and alcohol

Leads to mental retardation, addiction in child

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Environmental in child development

Secure attachment, parenting styles

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Secure attachment

Better social and emotional development, impacted by culture as well

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Authoritarian

Strict, demand rigid obedience

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Permissive

Lax, inconsistent direction, demain little

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Authoritative

Firm but set realistic goals

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Sex

Biologically based categories of make and female

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Gender

Culturally constructed distinctions between masculinity and feminist (perception)

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Gender Roles

Expectations about what is appropriate for each sex

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Gender stereotypes

Widely held beliefs about males and females abilities, personality traits, and behaviour

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Sexual orientation

Persons preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same, other p, or either sex, biologically determined

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Gender expression

How you communicate that outlook , don’t have to agree, is a spectrum, some can be outside of gender binary

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Gender Dysphoria

Discrepancy between an individuals experienced gender and the gender others would attribute to them, based on their biological sex

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Shaping of gender

Can be shared by cu’tire, biological factors

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Judith Butler

Gender is role we okay, choose to confirm, resist, set rules through media, can choose to conform or actively resist, rules set through media

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Jean Piaget - Cognitive Development theory

Widely accepted, sense of self emerges as we master each stage, babies came into the world incapable of surviving in their own, acquire ability to survive independently by adapting to new situations as they grow and develop, as they adapt, must organize their learning in way that makes sense to them, limited by natural development of human brain in early years

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Stage 1 : Sensorimotor

Birth - 2yrs old, learn by touching, egocentric, do not understand world existing in perspective other than our own

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Stage 2 : Pre-operational

2-7 years, develops language, use of symbols, memory, imagination, cannot appreciate that other child may be right and they may be wrong

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Stage 3 : Concrete Operational

7-11 yrs, have logic, understand set of objects have same quantity when arranged in different patterns, principles of measurement and size, 2 vessels of different shape may hold same amount of liquid

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Stage 4 : Formal Operational

11+ years, can think abstractly and reason theoretically, refer to things on right or left side, develop ability to logically link symbols to abstract idea, become egocentric again early in the period, can see their fault and others validity

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Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929), George Herbert Mead

Notion of self did not exist at birth, was not part of body and not controlled by biological drives, sled development is based on how we think others see us, Colley believed the individual is just as capable of shaking society as society is shaping the individual

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Primary Group (Cooley Mead)

Set of people with whom an individual has strong emotional and personal connections, believed constant interaction w primary group crucial for developing social identity, individual becomes a reflection and representative for primary group

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The looking glass self

Way in which individuals sense of self is mirrored and reflected by others, three main concepts, we envision how we appear to other people, we envision the judgement of that appearance, our sense of self develops through this interaction

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Meads I and Me

Looking glass self was way of explaining how individuals see themselves through eyes of those they interact with but took notion one step further, claimed that depending on circumstances individual assumes a variety of different social rules and learn early which mask to wear, there are two parts of self, subjective I initiates social actions such as conversations, me is when we play the role if other person, me sled forms impressions about the I self based in the responses of other people, and therefore childrens social experience was vital to their development of the me self

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Erik Erikson (1902-1994) - psychosocial development theory

Influenced by Freud, believed that humans continue to develop over time, believed in eight chronological stages, subject face a conflict between person wants and societal expectations and must work through solution, the self emerges as we successfully resolve all eight conflict s, adolescents expérience identity crisis, expressed differently based in society and time period, feel extremely self conscious, and involved in conflicts, if successful will regard life with pleasure, critics say it was too rigid

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Stage 1 : trust vs Mistrust (EE)

Birth-1yr developed when physical or psychological needs such as hunger and comfort are met, a lack can cause frustration and withdrawal

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Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt EE

2-3 yrs, supportive environment fosters autonomy through encouragement of indépendance and clear discipline, lack such as criticism and overprotective discipline can cause loss of trust, shame and doubt about indépendance

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Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt EE

3-5 yrs, initiative increases w sense of responsibility through parental pride and confidence lack can cause anxiety about initiating tasks, guilt

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Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority EE

6yrs-puberty, interests develop in knowledge, awareness that they are productive human beings develops through guidance and praise of academic and social development, unsuccessful learning experiences can lead to sense of inferiority and worthlessness if expectations for success in school are too high or low

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Stage 5: Identity vs Role EE

Teens-20s, Increased concern for way others see them, exploring who am I, achieves via strong role models inability to settle in an identity, occurs of lack of role models and or social demand causing inner turmoil

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Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation EE

20s- early 40s, well formed identity enables the ability to form close relationships/friendships and healthy identity, social isolation can cause unformed identity, limits experiences that could harm ego, fear of being hurt

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Stage 7: Generativity vs Stagnation EE

Middle aged, to guide next generation through making good personal decisions, success, enjoyment of work, concern for the growth of others, stagnation develops out of a sense if lack of purpose, lack of concern for others, self centred, despairing

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Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair EE

Late adulthood-late 60s onward, re examination of life, integrity is achieved if previous stages developed well, fear of death or dépendance on others can lead to despair

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Missy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, Theory if Social Emotional Development for Girls

Believed Eriksons model didn’t take into account gender differences, in 1995 developed five stage model, on idea that development is influenced by society as well, and that a girls financial indépendance is key to developing autonomy

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Stage 1: Devoloping the Hardy Personality Bingham and Stryker

Birth-8yrs, feels in control of own life, committed to specific activities, looks forward to challenges, opportunities for growth

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Stage 2: forming an identity as an achiever Bingham and Stryker

9-12yrs, develops steady durable core of self as person capable of accomplishment in variety of areas

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Stage 3: building skills for self esteem Bingham and Stryker

13-16yrs, feeling of being worthy, deserving, entitled to assert needs, wants, confidence, ability to cope with life

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Stage 4: developing strategies for self sufficiency emotional and financial Bingham and Stryker

17-22yrs, sense of responsibility for taking care for one’s self and family sets in

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Stage 5: finding satisfaction in work and love

Adulthood, finds contentedness in personal accomplishments, social and personal relations

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Lawrence Kohlbergs six stages of moral development

Conducted research in boys 10,13 ans 16 of middle and lower income groups, developed three levels each with two stages, recorded the children responses to dilemma situations

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Preconventional Morality

Décision relates to reward and punishment

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Preconventional morality A

Obedience and punishment orientation, follow rules to avoid punishment

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Preconventional Morality B

Individualism and exchange, follow rules for personal benefit and fulfillment of needs

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Conventional Morality

Desire to please others

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