Unit 2 study guide

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1.Evaluate the acts imposed on the colonies by Parliament and the colonists’ reaction

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1.Evaluate the acts imposed on the colonies by Parliament and the colonists’ reaction

The acts imposed made the colonists pay taxes to the British and refused to represent the colonists. “No taxation without representation”, the colonists were angry the were being taxed without their Consent and protested by boycotting and harassing tax collectors and being violent or destructive

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2.Explain why Parliament responded to the Boston “Tea Party” with the Coercive Acts.

The British were mad bc they lost a lot of money and MA was constantly being disobedient by protesting and boycotting, they wanted to isolate MA and Boston from colonies and wanted to scare them so they wouldn’t be like Boston. They punished Boston by blockades so they would eventually submit.

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3.Be able to put the Parliamentary Acts in chronological order.

Proclamation Act (1763), Sugar Act(1764), Stamp Act-1765, Quartering Act-1765, Declaratory Act-1766, Townshend Duties-1767, Tea Act-1773, Intolerable Acts-1774

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4.Explain the events that led the colonies to support a break from England.

The parliamentary acts, especially the coercive acts, the Boston Massacre and propaganda, formation of committees of correspondence, 1st Continental Congress petition os rejected, battle of Lexington/concord, rejection of the olive branch petition, common sense by Thomas paine

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5.Describe how the Declaration of Independence justified America’s independence from England.

They complained that the King was ignoring them, had no idea of the current events in colonies, didn’t take them seriously, were not represented

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6.List reasons that might have caused some people to become Loyalists.

They were appointed a position from the British, religion, or merchants who were making $ from trade and commerce w/ Britain and they had a good navy which protected trading.

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7.Explain the forces that led France to support the rebellion of the American colonies.

The American victory at the battle of Saratoga convinced the French to recognize American Independence and form a military alliance with America

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8.Discuss the terms of the Treaty of Paris following the American Revolution.

British will formally recognize the independence of the U.S., the us territory will extend north to the great Lakes and west to the Mississippi River, retain fishing rights off Newfoundland, British will withdraw their Troops (they do not)

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9.Discuss the problems with the Articles of Confederation.

Weak central government, strong state governments, don't have power to tax colonies, each state has One vote regardless of population, all states have to approve for amendments, acts passed by nat. Gov. Were optional for states to enforce, couldn't raise armies, only 1 branch of gov

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10.Discuss the importance of the Land Ordinance and the Northwest Ordinance.

The land ordinance allowed the confederation government make money by selling land since they could not levy taxes on the government, determined how land was surveyed, and ensured the orderly development of the west. The North-Ordinance established government for the west and guidelines for territories to become states. It also prohibited Slavery and required the governments to be republican

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8.Explain why the delegates to the Constitutional Convention decided to get rid of the Articles of Confederation

Shays rebellion and other event made delegates realize they need a stronger national government if they were Going to survive as a country, it was very weak and amending anything was impossible, and they really needed money

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9.Explain why James Madison is considered the Father of the Constitution.

He drafted the constitution and was vital fro the ratification

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10.Discuss the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.

Virginia Plan- # of representatives will be determined by population for lower house and upper house(appointed) New Jersey Plan- states have equal votes in a unicameral legislature

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11.Know what each article of the Constitution establishes.

Article 1- legislative branch Article 2- Executive branch Article 3- Judicial branch Article 4- Relation among the states Article 5- Amendment Procudures Article 6- Supremacy of the Constitution Article 7- Ratification

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12.Discuss the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in ratifying the Constitution.

The federalists claimed that we needed a strong central government. The anti federalist claimed it would give the government too much power and the people and the states would have no rights and the elite would take advantage of it and it had no bill of rights.

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13.Describe Washington’s presidency and his cabinet.

Washington was a federalist and was all about setting precedents and into protocol and wanted the states and the world to take them seriously. His cabinet include jefferson sec of state, Hamilton sec of treasury, and Knox was sec of war, was very aware that as the first president what he did mattered

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14.Explain what is meant by strict and loose interpretation of the Constitution.

Strict means that whatever the constitution says is lawful and what the document says you can do is all you can do . Loose means that the constitution has implied powers that are not mentioned in the constitution, if its not violating the constitution then they can do anything the constitution doesn’t mention.

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15.Explain how political parties were formed and the ideological differences between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists

Parties were formed over the disagreement of the power of the government and the policies showed favoritism towards a certain class. The D-Rs wanted strong state govs, favored small farmers and artisans, pro-French, agriculture, strict interpretation, and wanted no bank,, tariff or big peacetime military. Federalists wanted a strong national gov, loose interpretation, pro-British, favored commercial, big businesses, national bank, tariffs,favored northern business men and wanted large peacetime military, the biggest and most important difference was how much power the states should have.

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16.Discuss the impact of the French Revolution on America.

Their revolution was violent and Washington declares the Neutrality proclamation, we wanted to avoid war with Brit’s and French.

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17.Explain how Adams avoided war following the XYZ Affair and the impact of the Alien and Sedition Acts.

He left army commissions unsigned and threatened to resign.

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18.Describe what happened in the Election of 1800. Why was it called the Revolution of 1800?

The election of 1800 was the first switch of power between political parties from federalist to D-R. It was peaceful and there was no blood spilled. They had to vote 36x bc kept getting tied (Jefferson vs Burr), so the passed 12th amendment which allowed for separate balloting

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19.Explain what Jefferson meant when he said “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

We are all Americans at the end of the day & federalists should trust him, respects things he doesn’t agree with like the nat bank but will keep them bc he understands why its needed, but will stick to his belief of limited gov

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20.How did John Marshall’s ruling on the Judiciary Act of 1789 give the Supreme Court more power?

He established judicial review, gives them the power to decide if an act is constitutional and whatever they do is the supreme law. Could review and possibly nullify actions of congress and the president

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21.Which president appointed John Marshall? When? Why was this significant?

He was appointed by president John Adams on his last day of being president. He is the last of the federalists., strengthens national gov.

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22.Describe the events leading up to Marbury v. Madison and the result of the case.

John Adams appoints his midnight judges on his last day as president. He sent messengers to deliver comisiones that they were appointed by him, but the next day Jefferson became president and told messengers not to send them. Some people didn’t receive them ex Williams Marbury and he petitions to receive his commission

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23.Explain why the purchase of the Louisiana Territory was significant. What difficulty did Jefferson have with the purchase of the LA territory?

The LA territory doubled the size of the U.S. and allowed us to expand west. Jefferson didn’t know if the purchase was constitutional bc the constitution doesn’t mention anything about purchasing land and Jefferson believed in the strict interpretation. LA territory lets us control Miss. river trade

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24.Discuss the concepts of Jeffersonian Democracy and how Jefferson’s presidential protocol differed from Washingtons’ and Adam’s

Believed in equality, did not greet people by order of status, opportunities should be available to everyone, and believed in accessible education, and he brought a new cabinet

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25.What treasonous act did Aaron Burr commit and which two major constitutional precedents were set because of it?

He wanted to carve out an empire in the west and wanted LA territory to secede. Constitutional precedents set were two people had to witness over the act of treason and that judges had the power to deny to the other branches ill-founded prosecutions of unpopular and even dangerous men.

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26.Discuss the Embargo Act and explain why it was unpopular.

The embargo act (made by jefferson) stopped trade and prohibited all exports but we were still able to get imports. Countries didn’t want to trade with us bc not profitable and ppl on east coast who were merchants (NEW WNLGAND) were affected negatively, meant to punish British and French for seizing our ships

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27.Who were the War Hawks and why did they want to go to war with Great Britain?

They were young, new congressmen, from the new western states, they didn’t like that britain was insulting them and wanted war, led by Henry Clay and John C Calhoun

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28.Explain why America got involved in the War of 1812 and why she was unprepared to do so.

Britain was seizing american ships and supporting Native American resistance to the U.S., our millitary was extremely small almost non-existent, bc of the D-R presidents who believed in a small p.t. Military

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29.Which battle is considered the turning point in the War of 1812? Explain what happened.

The Battle of Baltimore/Fort McHenry/Northpoint was the turning point. British general dies leaving Brit’s confused.

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30.Explain what the Treaty of Ghent determined with status quo antebellum.

That everything gets put back to the way it was before the war, ex land boundaries stay the same, and British take away their troops finally.

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31.How did the War of 1812 increase our national spirit and industrialization?

We defeated the British and were more respectable

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32.Who engineered the American System and what were the three parts?

Henry clay 1)pass high tariffs on imports to protect American Businesses and to increase revenues 2) reestablish bank of the U.S. in Eder to stabilize US currency and state banks 3) develop and support internal capital improvements, conducting roads and canals

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33.Discuss what caused America’s 1st Industrial Revolution to get started.

Embargo act of 1807 and War of 1812

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34.What was significant about Eli Whitney’s cotton gin? How did the invention impact the institution of slavery?

The cotton gin cleaned cotton a lot more faster than slaves. It made the crop more profitable since it is now able to keep up with the demand. Increases need for slaves to meet demand

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35.Discuss the rise of the factory system and its impact on the workers.

Started rising after new inventions were made. People started traveling to their workplace instead of working at home and the process began to become deskilled

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36.Discuss the need for improved transportation in the West.

It connected the manufacturing east and the agricultural west. Allowed for more trading within the country and provided faster and cheaper transportation

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37.Discuss the impact of steamboats and canals on commerce. Why was the Erie Canal so important?

Steamboats and canals allowed for faster and cheaper transportation, more goods could be traded. The Erie Canal linked the cities and made trade easier and contributed to development and settlement.

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causes of and turning points leading up to the Revolutionary War, starting with the Proclamation of 1763, then the various acts of Parliament, and events, like the Boston Massacre, and Boston Tea Party.

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“no taxation without representation”​​

Colonists claim they shouldn’t be taxed because they are not represented in parliament and therefore have no say, don’t like being told what to do w/o consent

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Proclamation of 1763

Parliament did not allow settlers to go settle west of Appalachian mountains to avoid bloodshed, Americans ignore this

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​ Sugar Act

1764, 1st act to be passed, taxes on sugar, coffee, wines, molasses. Had an indirect tax (tax on whole shipment), lowered the tax on molasses, intended to end smuggling, corruption, and inefficiency

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Quartering Act​​​​

1765, 3rd act to be passed, Colonists forced to house and feed British army (redcoats), passed bc army wasn’t getting money to make barracks bc colonists weren’t paying taxes

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Declaratory Act

1766, 4th act, Passed same day Stamp act was repealed, stated that Parliament had the right to tax the colonists.

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​Stamp Act

1765, 2nd act, Taxes on all printed material and legal documents, direct tax that were very high, intended to raise $ for military bc they are defending and protecting the colonies

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Boston Massacre

March 1770, 5 people were shot and killed by redcoats looking for work, and colonists were being hostile toward the redcoats, Brit’s acted out of defense and killed ppl. American propaganda by Revere made the colonies look innocent and convinced ppl to become patriots.

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​​​Sons/Daughters of Liberty

Led the resistance to the stamp act(Stamp Act Congress), were artisans, shopkeepers, and small time merchants willing to adopt extralegal means of protest (Patriots); radical group that organized resistance against British policies in Boston in the 1760 and 1770s, organized the Boston Tea Party; Led the popular resistance against the stamp act, defending their liberty, refused to buy British goods and encouraged others, made their own tea and homespun cloth, protested through how they dressed

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​Patrick Henry

“Give me liberty or give me death”, was a patriot, introduced Virginia Stamp Act resolutions which denounced the stamp act and the crown. Slaveholder, anti-federalist

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Coercive Acts

Response to Boston Tea Party, closed Boston Harbor, transferred legal cases outside of Mass., expanded quartering act, reduced Mass. legislature power, change local government(colony charter revised), intended to isolate Boston/MA from colones and scare them.

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​​​​Committees of Correspondence

Established around 1772, An organized colony-wide resistance movement; created first in MA, and then in other colonies through letters, these groups circulated grievances against the British to towns within their colonies, began to publicly discuss independence from GB.

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​Sam Adams

Reforms the committees of correspondence, was a patriot, was to be arrested for being a rebel leader in battle of Lexington/Concord, was a Son of Liberty and organized Boston Tea Party.

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“virtual representation

Parliament claimed that every British citizen including the colonists were represented by all parliament members

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Thomas Paine – Common Sense

Published a pamphlet in Jan 1776 calling for independence and to form a democratic republic. Written in a language that ordinary ppl can read, available in all 13 colonies bc it was very popular. Convicted many to reject monarchy and be in favor for independence and a republican gov.

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​Townshend Duties

Tax on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea (manufactured items the colonists couldn’t produce)

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Lexington/Concord

April 1775, the first shots of rev war begin, shot heard around the world, British wanted to arrest Sam adams and John Hancock, and wanted to attack and seize the MA arsenal, were stopped by minute men who made them retreat

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​​​Battle of Bunker Hill​

August 1775, King George III hired Hessians bc he doesn’t want to “waste” his troops on us bc were not “worth it”

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Battle of Saratoga

Oct. 1777, Turning point in Rev War, French decide to help us bc of the colonial victory, parliament was actually going to repeal Townshend acts b4 this but was too slow.

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Yorktown

1781, final battle of the war, close to Jamestown, Cornwallis surrenders but makes his 2nd in command do it, GW and his troops had Brit’s backed up against the water.

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​​​​Cornwallis​

British general, very bad and treated his troops like crap.

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Richard Henry Lee

Introduced the Resolution for Independence, its in the end of the Declaration of Independence in June 1776, delegate from VA

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1st and 2nd Continental Congresses

1st Continental Congress- in 1774, called by MA to discuss Coercive Acts, 12 of 13 colonies attend, write a petition to the King/Parliament to repeal acts but were rejected, formed the Association

2nd Continental Congress- in 1775, sent Olive Branch Petition to the King but was rejected, made the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

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​The Association​

Complete boycott of British goods

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Olive Branch Petition

Colonies(2nd continental congress) want peace with GB and to remain British citizens, King George III says no and claims colonies are in open rebellion

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Treaty of Paris, 1783

British formally recognized the independence of the U.S., extended territory north to Great Lakes and west to Mississippi River, retain fishing rights off Newfoundland, and British withdraw their troops(they don’t)

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​​​King George III

Was the king of GB during and before the Rev War, the D of I was complaining about how crappy he was.

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​Hessians

German mercenaries hired by G.B. To put down American rebellion and help British in war, hired in Bunker Hill

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Loyalists/Tories

Loyal to Britain, the wealthy and merchants, mainly held strongholds close to water

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​​​​Patriots/Whigs​

Wanted independence from Britain, held stronghold closer inland and spread apart, lots in Boston

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Shays’s Rebellion

1787 western MA, Farmers were in debt and couldn’t pay bc of inflation, most were rev war soldiers(Daniel Shays) who didn’t get paid bc congress could not collect taxes, protested and escalated very quickly and got put down by militia, concerned ppl and motivated them to amend AOC

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Articles of Confederation

1781-1787, First national government of the U.S., unicameral legislature, each state had one vote, intentionally weak national gov.

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​​Alexander Hamilton​

Wrote one of the federalists paper and wanted to ratify constitution. He becomes GW’s Secretary of Treasury. Proposed financial reform to build a financial foundation, wanted to 1) assume war debts of states, 2) protect infant industries, 3)charter a national bank and 4) excise tax on whiskey

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Great Compromise

Virginia Plan- representation based off population- and New Jersey plan- equal representation- were combined to form a bicameral legislature (Senate and House of Reps). Ben Franklin suggested this and enables Constitutional Convention to continue.

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checks and balances

Ensures no branch of government has complete control

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​​​Virginia/New Jersey Plan

Virginia Plan- representation based of population New Jersey Plan- equal representation

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​3/5ths Compromise​

Each enslaved person counts as 3/5ths of a person, allowed southerners to get more representation and pay more taxes

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James Madison

Father of the constitution, federalist(obvi he made it), and important to its ratification

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​​​​Bill of Rights

1st ten amendments that states rights of the people and states

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​Bank of the U.S.

Proposed by Hamilton’s financial reforms, would make a national bank, would give us a bigger pool of $, give us advantage in global economy, and would help as financially as a nation.

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Neutrality Proclamation

GW proclaims we have to stay neutral to a void war bc we are too young and don’t have the resources to go to war, passed in response of French going to war with Britain. We still trade with both nations.

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​​Whiskey Rebellion​

Hamilton enacted a local tax on whiskey, farmers were mad that their products were being taxed, GW sends 15k soldiers to put down rebellion, shows the constitution works

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Farewell Address

GW gives this speech when he retires as President, says to not get involved in European Affairs, avoid permanent alliances in foreign affairs, don’t form political parties (too late), and avoid sectionalism within the nation

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Jay’s Treaty

Jay went to GB to negotiate the removal of British forts in American, compensation(payment) for seizing american ships, acceptance of American neutral rights, but were met with resistance from British. However we are able to convince them to abandon their British forts.

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​​​​XYZ Affair

French offended by Jay’s Treaty, begin seizing US ships. Adams sent specials commission to negotiate but French agents “XYZ” wanted huge bribe for US commission to see French Minister Tallyrand. They were unsuccessful in seeing the ministers, offended, and refused to pay and left.

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​Alien and Sedition Acts

Passed to please federalists, president can detain or deport belligerent citizens, expel any foreigner, extend time immigrants can apply for citizenship from 5 to 14 years, bc most immigrants became DRs

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Emoluments

Article 1 section 6, profiting from their private business

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​​​​Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Written in response to Alien and Sedition acts by Jefferson and James Madison, stated it violated 1st amendment rights of speech and press, the A&S act was unconstitutional and should be repealed, and defend the rights of the states to NULLIFY AN ACT OF CONGRESS

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​Revolution of 1800

Long vote, transition of political powers in office peacefully

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12th Amendment

Allowed for separate balloting for president and Vice President

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​​​Marbury v. Madison

Increase power of the court, gave itself permission to rule on the states. Marbury didn’t receive his commission.

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​midnight judges

Judges appointed on Adams last day as president

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John Marshall

Appointed on Adams last day of president, Chief Justice, last of the federalists, established judicial review, ruled on Marbury v Madison, makes national gov stronger.

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​​​​Lewis and Clark

Hired by Jefferson to explore LA territory, leave in 1804, looking for water route east to west.

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​Corps of Discovery

Group led by L&W to explore LA territory. Consisted of 33 frontiersmen, boatmen, hunters, French fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau and his wife Sacagawea who was their guide and interpreter

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Impressment

Sailors getting kidnapped off their ships at high sea

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​​​​Aaron Burr – Burr Conspiracy

Wanted to make his own empire in LA territory, wanted LA territory to secede

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​executive privilege

the authority of the President to withhold documents or information in his possession or in the possession of the Executive Branch from the Legislative or Judicial Branch of the government.

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Embargo Act

Stopped exporting goods from the U.S to anyone, to punish French and British for seizing our ships

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​​​​Non-Intercourse Act

Replaced embargo act, no US exports to France or British but we can trade with everyone else

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