APUSH Period 4

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T/F: The transition from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson was an orderly transfer of power between parties.

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republican simplicity

the deliberate attitude of humility and frugality, as opposed to monarchical pomp and ceremony; adopted by Thomas Jefferson in his presidency to emphasize his connection the "common" people

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right to vote

As all white men gained the ____________, voters were not content to be governed solely by "their betters"; they wanted to do the governing themselves.

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federal budget

While he kept the B.U.S., Jefferson disagreed with Hamilton's view that national debt was a blessing. In order to decrease the national debt, Jefferson slashed the _______________, decreasing the federal government's scope and power.

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T/F: Jefferson wanted the western land so he could push the natives west, leaving farmers with the fertile, southern land.

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Louisiana Purchase

territory in the western United States purchased from France by Jefferson; doubled the nation's size; sold by Napolean, who had had recent losses in his armies; allowed Jefferson to get more land and push Napolean out of the continent

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Haiti Rebellion

the first successful rebellion by enslaved people; caused southern plantes to become afraid of anti-slavery uprisings caused by Haitian immigrants; explains why the USA refused to do business in Haiti and refused to acknowledge its independence until 1862

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T/F: Although his Democratic-Republican beliefs prohibited him from interpreting the Constitution loosely, having increased federal power, and more, Jefferson sometimes ignored these beliefs when acting in what he believed to be the best interest of the country.

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duel

After Hamilton stopped Burr from being elected governor of New York, the two took part in a __________, during which Hamilton died. Burr later fled to South Carolina, and then to Europe.

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Burr Conspiracy

a plan created by Burr and General James Wilkinson to capture a part of the Mississippi River Valley, declare it an independent republic, and make Burr its ruler; Wilkinson turned on Burr and alerted Jefferson; Thomas Jefferson was furious and demanded that Burr be hung, but Chief Justice Marshall acquitted him due to a lack of evidence

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T/F: Jefferson banned the Transatlantic Slave Trade because southern slavers believed that African slaves were more prone to revolt.

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Tripolitan War

war with barbary pirates who worked for the Islamic rulers of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli and preyed upon unarmed European and American ships; Jefferson began an unconstitutional naval war without a declaration of war from Congress in order to protect merchants;

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patriotism

pride for one's country

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nationalism

putting the power of the nation first; us vs them mentality

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T/F: After the Revolutionary War, the United States attempted to create its own culture by creating new spellings, writing textbooks, and developing different architecture

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Georgian architecture

British architecture which involves symmetry; named after the King Georges; abandoned by USA after war

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neoclassical architecture

architecture which takes inspiration from the Greeks; used by the USA after the war to exemplify its status as the "new democratic society"

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T/F: The Marshall Court supported state rights and powers instead of supporting the federal government's power.

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War of 1812

a war between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France; not popular and not hugely successful until later; after USA won the war and there was a surge of nationalism, the Federalists declined because they opposed the war and their views were considered unpopular

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Hartford Convention

convention of federalists which proposed several Constitutional amendments which would decrease the power of the democratic-republicans

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Battle of New Orleans

major American victory during the War of 1812; created a hero out of Andrew Jackson; increased American nationalism and unity

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Treaty of Ghent

treaty of War of 1812 which created status quo antebellum (keeping things the way they were before the war); combined with the battle of New Orleans to convince the public that USA won the war

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Monroe Doctrine

in response to possibilities of Spain recolonizing South America; instead of a joint proclamation with Britain, which would diminish the power of America; basically said that Europe can not colonize in the Americas or overthrow and existing government in the Americas, and if they do, America will declare war

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Missouri Compromise

an agreement between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories; Missouri would be admitted as a slave state, while Maine would be admitted as a free state; keeps slave and free state representation in gov't equal; Missouri's southern border is the limit of slavery

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T/F: Although many immigrants came to the USA because of the opportunities, ethnic prejudices, anti-Catholicism, and language barriers made it difficult for many immigrants.

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market economy

an economy that prioritized large-scale manufacturing and commercial agriculture that emerged in America during the first half of the nineteenth century, displacing much of the premarket subsistence and barter-based economy and producing boom-and-bust cycles while raising the American standard of living

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T/F: While the country was in dire need of a national transportation system; there were many disagreements about whether this infrastructure should be funded by states or the federal government.

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Conestogas

large horse-drawn wagons

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National Road

a national road which stretched from the Atlantic Coats westward; first interstate road financed by the federal government; reduced transportation costs, opened up new markets, and stimulating the growth of towns

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steamboats

ships and boats powered by wood-fired steam engines that made two way traffic possible in eastern river systems, creating a transcontinental market and a agricultural empire

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New Orleans

a port and largest city in Louisiana; incredibly wealthy due to water trade

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Erie Canal

most important and profitable of the many barge canals built in the early nineteenth century, connecting the Great Lakes to the Hudson River and conveying so much cargo that it made New York City the nation's largest port; brought fur, lumber, and textile trade to the east; tied together the Midwest and East while isolating the Deep South

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railroad

a form of transportation which could carry more people and travel faster, farther, and cheaper; could also operate year-round; encouraged western settlement, new towns, and interconnected market; first big businesses, which often led to corruption (leaders in the industry bribing legislators)

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clipper ships

cause by American thirst for Chinese tea; twice as fast as previous ships, so tea reached America soon after harvest; later abandoned for steamship due to lack of space and fragility during storms

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National Trades' Union

union formed to organize the citywide trade unions into a stronger national association; unions created by artisans who could not compete with industrialism and foreign goods; pressured politicians to create laws in their favor; declared unlawful, but later declared legal by the Supreme Court

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American System

created by Henry Clay; argued for federally-funded roads and transportation, tariffs to protect American industries, and a national bank

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T/F: The creation of the Second B.U.S. signified the beginning of the split between Democrats and Republicans

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cotton gin

a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers; changed a labor intensive job to something that can be completed with mass production

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Panic of 1819

a short depression, during which many farms lost their land and had to move North; cause increase in labor for manufacturers

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immigrants

Many Irish and German _________ worked in Northern factories or lived in the North, causing an excess of labor for manufacturers

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stock

There was a limited risk for purchasing _______ in factories during industrialization. Because of this, many companies had more money to start their businesses or factories.

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cult of domesticity

the idea that women must stay at home, take care of the kids, and do house duties while the men go out and work; cause by industrialization and more male-dominated jobs

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wage slavery

when there is an excess of labor, poor workers in factories must accept their low wages because they could easily be replace by someone willing to take the money; increased class divide

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nativism

anti-immigrant feelings

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Know-Nothings

aka American Party; nativist group which disliked anything "unAmerican" such as immigrant; immigrants usually vote Democratic-Republican, so anti-Democratic-Republicans dislike them

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one-party

Although _____________ politics may have seemed beneficial, the Democratic Republican party was actually incredibly fractured, as evidence by the 1824 presidential election.

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corrupt bargain

during the 1824 presidential election, Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams made a deal so JQA became president and Henry Clay would become Secretary of State; controversial, as Jackson called JQA a scoundrel and his supporters began to undermine his presidency

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campaign of 1828

during the presidential election of 1828 between Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans; Jackson called Adams a "monarchist" and an "elitist"; Adams called Jackson "a man whose fame rested upon his reputation as a killer"; Jackson's campaign specifically appealed to "common" voters in the South and West; Jackson defeated Adams

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Workingmen's parties

political groups which were composed of laborers and working men; promoted the interest of laborers; however, due to their inexperience, they were often manipulated by politicians; Democratic party co-opted issues; however, they succeeded in drawing attention to their issues

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T/F: During the age of Jacksonian Democracy, politics became entertainment and many people, even women, watched debates and share their political opinions.

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T/F: By reducing federal spending, destroying the national bank, and moving the Indians west, Andrew Jackson exercised much more presidential authority than his predecessors.

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T/F: The status of tribes was uncertain, as they existed as a separate nation within the United States.

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T/F: During the Georgia gold rush, miners were respectful of treaties with Native tribes and stayed away from Native territory.

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Indian Removal Act

act which gave president power to use force to remove natives; appropriated money to accomplish removal

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T/F: The Marshall Supreme Court ruled that native tribes were under the jurisdiction of the states.

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T/F: The Jackson administration enforced the Supreme Court rulings considering natives tribes.

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Treaty of New Echota

treaty that gave Cherokee money and land in Oklahoma in exchange for their ancestral lands in the east; signed by dissenting group, not Cherokee; not all Cherokee were entirely removed because of difficulties finding them

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Tariff of Abominations

increased tariff in 1828 as a form of protectionism; South Carolina blamed the increased tariff for economic problems; Calhoun wrote against it and claimed that the states could judge the constitutionality of federal law within their own border

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Ordinance of Nullification

in response to Tariff of Abominations; forbade tariff collection; any use of federal force would justify secession from the union

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Proclamation to the People of South Carolina

written by Andrew Jackson in response to the Ordinance of Nullification; authorized the president to use the army to compel South Carolina to obey the tariff

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Compromise of 1833

compromise made by Clay after backlash against Tariff of Abominations; slowly lowered tariffs over the next decade

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Maysville Road

proposed road running through Kentucky which requested funding from Congress; bill was vetoed by Jackson because the road would only go through Kentucky, so it was outside the jurisdiction of Congress; also helped the Erie Canal preserve monopoly over western trade

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The Bank War

disagreement between Biddle (head of B.U.S.) and Jackson over the existence of the Second B.U.S.; Jackson despised and distrusted the bank (as did many Southerners/Westerners) and vetoed the renewal of its contract

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T/F: After being reelected, Jackson requested that all funds in the federal bank be moved to state banks in the west.

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T/F: Nicholas Biddle attempted to cause a depression in the US to reveal the importance of maintaining a national bank.

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T/F: After the fall of the national bank, total state indebtedness soared.

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T/F: During the "free banking era," anyone who raised a minimum amount of money could start a bank. However, many of these banks went bankrupt.

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Distribution Act

act which required the federal government to "distribute" surplus revenue from land sales to the state by "depositing" the funds into eighty-one state banks in proportion to each state's representation in Congress

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Specie Circular

announced that the federal government would accept only gold or silver coin in payment for land purchased by speculators; westerners did not like this, but a bill overruling the policy was vetoed

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T/F: Combined, the Distribution Act and the Species Circular helped improve the USA's economy.

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Whig Party

political party formed in opposition to Jackson and his democrats; name comes from term used by American patriots in Revolutionary War; supported American System; attracted Protestant voters who were abolitionists and wanted to restrict alcohol; strong central government; supported by the wealthy

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Martin Van Buren

responsible for the creation of the Democratic party; good friends with Jackson; did not believe that the government had any role in helping the people affected by the Panic of 1837

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Panic of 1837

panic caused when the Bank of England curtailed its loans, causing many companies to decrease cotton trade with America; state banks failed, the federal government had no funds, overproduction of money without proper backing caused inflation; and many people fell into poverty

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Independent Treasury Act

established an independent Treasury system whereby the government would keep its funds in its own bank vaults and do business entirely in gold or silver, not paper currency

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T/F: William Henry Harrison campaign portrayed him as a "simple man who sprung from the people," which reflected his actual status as a common man

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T/F: In the early 1800s, the quickest way to wealth and social status was owning, working, and selling enslaved workers.

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slave codes

formal laws in each state which governed the treatment of enslaved people; most common forbid reading and writing, leaving without permission, etc

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human capital

slaves; people who are treated as commodities to be bought and sold

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T/F: In slave states, free Blacks had to pay an annual tax and were not allowed to leave the state. Later, they were required to have a White "guardian" and an identity card.

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T/F: Slaves were unable to purchase their own freedom, and could only be freed willingly by their owners.

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Mulattoes

people of both white and black ancestry; status between whites and blacks; some even became slaveholders themselves

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T/F: Slave owners, after 1808, treated their slaves better because they were more expensive.

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T/F: On most Southern farms, the slaves would work on the farm, while the family would partake in other activities.

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T/F: Slaves in urban cities were better fed and clothes and often had more privileges. They also could have a trade and keep a portion of their wages.

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spirituals

sacred African-American folk songs which often expressed a longing to be free

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T/F: The African-American religion was a combination of Christianity and traditional African beliefs.

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T/F: Almost all southerners owned slaves.

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South

The _______ believed that the North was intentionally hurting them through banks and economic policies.

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gang system

large groups of slaves doing the same thing in the field

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task allotment system

slaves had a list of jobs for day; after list was done, work was done

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newspapers

The availability of _________ and their cheap price turned daily reading into a form of entertainment.

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T/F: The South had the lowest literacy rate in the country in the mid-1800s.

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Second Great Awakening

a wave of enthusiastic religious revivals during the mid 1800s that transformed American Puritan beliefs and set the stage for enthusiastic social reform movements

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temperance

a reform movement during the Second Great Awakening which encouraged Americans to decrease or eliminate their alcohol intake; under the impression that alcohol causes all societal problems

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American Temperance Union

absolutists of the temperance movement who wanted liquor to be prohibited by law

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T/F: Social reform can only be a liberal force.

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Auburn Penitentiary

a prison in New York which was aimed at rehabilitation of prisoners, but was very strict and almost tortuous

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Dorothea Dix

a Boston schoolteacher who was horrified by the treatment of mentally ill patients at a prison who had been neglected and abused

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Seneca Falls Convention

convention organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton to promote women's rights snd issue the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments

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Declaration of Rights and Sentiments

a feminist rephrase of the Declaration of Independence; declared men and women equal

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