Biomed I: Infectious Diseases

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Mucus

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1

Mucus

provides an additional layer of protection has a thinner epithelium layer because it is in the nose, gut, and respiratory tract if the epithelium was not thinner than normal, these could not function works with the cilia

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2

Intestinal Epithelium

One layer thick similar to mucus cells are sealed together tightly

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3

What are 2 microbial factors?

versatility- pathogens that can be transmitted through multiple routes infectious dose- number of organisms required to infect a host

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4

B cells

attack invading cells on the outside of the cell produce antibodies

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5

Tears

have enzymes that break down bacteria can flush out bacteria lubricate the eye

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6

Stomach Acid

has a pH level of 1.5 to 3.5 lowers the chance of pathogens getting into the intestines

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7

Hypodermis

the bottom layer of the skin

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8

What layer are fingerprints found on?

(answer to question) fingerprints also called "friction ridges" are found in the dermis (specifically the papillary layer)

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9

Adipose tissue

the seams of fat that make up the hypodermis they provide cushioning and insulation

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10

Epithelium

an external barrier that separates the inside and outside of the body made of several thick layers few pathogens can get in bottom is sterile

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11

Defensins

chemicals that keep unwanted microbes in check and support symbiotic commensal bacteria (good bacteria)

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12

Antibodies

proteins that recognize specific invading microbes and mark them for destruction

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13

T Cells

attack invading pathogens inside the cell coordinate immune responses kill infected host cells can recognise invaders even if they are well camouflaged

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14

Fungi

unicellular eukaryotic organisms with chitinous cell walls

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15

Spanish Flu

A pandemic that killed 50-100 million people was a strand of either pig or bird flu mainly affected people from ages 20-40 most devastating pandemic ever (not including COVID)

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16

Vector

an insect or small animal carrying a disease

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17

Virus

noncellular particles made of genetic material protected by a protein shell and sometimes and envelope

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18

Pathogens

the name for microbial agents that can cause disease

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19

infectious diseases can be transmitted through...

(answer to a question) the air, physical contact, and surfaces

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20

Infectious disease

a clinically clear illness with symptoms resulting from the presence of microbial agents (must be transmissible)

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21

Infectious agents

pathogens, microbes, viruses, protozoa, parasites, etc.

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22

Bacteria

single celled prokaryotic cells

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23

Microbes

organisms invisible to the naked eye

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24

Disease

an impairment of overall health

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25

Protozoa

eukaryotic microbes that aren't fungi

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26

Strains

different mutations of a pathogen

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27

Commensal microbiota

non-pathogenic (can't get you sick) microbes that occupy our skin, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts and protect us from other pathogens by competing for space

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28

Immune status

the system's ability to defend itself

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29

Internal tissue damage

injuries of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments causes you to be more exposed to microbes

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30

pandemic

a disease that spreads across continents (worldwide)

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31

CDC

Center for Disease Control and Prevention protects the public by giving medical advice

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32

Cross-protection

protection conferred on a host by vaccination with one strain of a microorganism that later protects against a slightly different strand

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33

Dose

the number of microbes the host has been exposed to

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34

Peristalsis

relaxation and contraction of muscles in the small intestine that propels food through the digestive system

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35

Route of transmission

the path a microbe takes to travel from an infected host to an uninfected one

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36

Transmission

the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host to an uninfected host

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37

How can microbes get in the body?

(answer to question) under the skin; cuts burns wounds transplants needles vectors

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38

Columbus and his plagues

smallpox and measles were carried from Europe to the Americas by the Spanish Columbus took Syphilis back to Europe from the Americas Bioterrorism began (the English would throw blankets with smallpox on it on the Native Americans)

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39

Capsule

protects the bacterium from the physical stress helps it camouflage

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40

Cell wall

protects the plasma membrane

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41

Spores

helps the bacteria survive in difficult conditions or when dormant

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42

Pili

how the bacteria stick to surfaces

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43

Nucleoid

the area in the cytoplasm of a bacteria that the DNA is found makes cell division more efficient

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44

How many bacterial cells are in one eukaryotic cell?

(answer to question) around 1,000 bacterial cells can fit in one eukaryotic cell

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45

How many viral cells can fit in one bacterial cell?

Around 8,000 viruses can fit in one bacteria

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46

Epidermis

the outmost layer of skin

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47

Dermis

the middle layer of skin where the epithelium gets its oxygen and nutrients

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48

Epidemic

the unusual rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time

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49

Epithelia

what forms the protective layer of the skin and mucosal membranes

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50

How can microbes get to the mucosal membranes?

(answer to question) mouth nose ears genitourinary tract mother to child

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51

envelope

protects the capsid when present composed of lipids and proteins contains receptor proteins needed to attach to host cells

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52

Gram negative cell wall

have less murein (polysaccharide) and have an outer membrane LPS is a major lipid found here the slightest trace of LPS can be identified as foreign makes you SUPER SUPER sick

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53

Measles

a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that spreads through the air about 1/3 of the people who get it develop complications such as: pneumonia ear infections diarrhea brain inflammation miscarriage

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54

Bubonic plague

one of the worst plagues killed half of Europe's population started in Central Asia, then expanded to Crimea the people knew it was transmitted by rats but did not know it was the fleas

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55

Antonine plague

was either a smallpox or measles variation one of the first plagues recorded hit Rome and slowed the expansion of the Roman Empire was an epidemic

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56

Complement

chemicals produced by the liver that kill bacteria in other invading cells by punching holes in their cell membranes

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57

Phagocytes

identify invading microbes using receptors eat microbes

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58

Non-sterile body parts

(answer to question) skin mouth stomach intestines upper respiratory tract

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59

Smallpox

a viral disease with very high mortality rate of about 30-35% the last smallpox case that occurred naturally was 1977 the only human infectious disease to be completely eradicated form the planet samples still exist in labs in the US and Russia

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60

Sterile body parts

(answer to question) brain spinal fluid heart liver blood muscles

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61

Apocrine sweat glands

less abundant sweat glands (only 2000 of them) found in the groin and armpits don't start functioning until puberty

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62

Eccrine sweat glands

more abundant sweat glands found in palms, forehead, and soles of feet

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63

Genome

where the gene of a virus are located inside the capsid can be DNA or RNA codes for viral protein

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64

Capsid

a protein that covers the genome protects the genome composed of protein contains enzymes needed for replication

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65

Plasmid

a circular piece of DNA found in a prokaryotic cell are not critical to life but can produce toxins (ex: botulism) can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics transfer easily through sex pili

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66

Gram positive cell wall

cell wall made of multiple layers of murein murein helps it survive in low or high salt concentration murein and LTA (major lipid) are recognized as foreign

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