Nervous System Diagnostic Tests, Procedures, Therapeutics, and Treatments

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cerebral angiography

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Ch. 9 Intro. to Medical Terminology

33 Terms

1

cerebral angiography

x-ray of the blood vessels in the brain after a contrast medium (dye) has been injected; used to diagnose a CVA and other injuries and disorders of the brain

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2

electroencephalogram (EEG)

record of the electrical impulses of the brain; used to diagnose neurological conditions thar affect brain function and level of consciousness

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3

lumbar puncture (LP); spinal tap

insertion of a needle between two lumbar vertebrae to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic evaluation or therapeutic treatment; commonly used to diagnose meningitis

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4

myelogram

procedure in which an X-ray of the spinal cord is taken after a contrast agent has been injected into the spine

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5

nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

procedure in which electrodes are placed on the surface of the body over specific nerve areas and a mild electrical impulse is delivered to the areas; used to measure the speed at which electrical impulses travel through a nerve

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6

positron emission tomography (PET)

procedure that uses nuclear medicine and computerized tomography to generate images of the brain; commonly used to diagnose a CVA, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy; also called a brain scan

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7

reflex testing

diagnostic test in which a part of the body is percussed (tapped) with a reflex hammer or other diagnostic stimulus to measure the presence and strength of muscular reflexes (reflex=involuntary reaction to a stimulus)

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8

Babinski sign

reflex in which the toes curl upward when the plantar surface (sole) of the foot is stimulated; a positive sign in an adult or in child older than two years of age indicates a disorder in the brain or nervous system (like a brain tumor, meningitis, or multiple sclerosis)

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9

deep tendon reflexes (DTRs)

involuntary muscle contractions that occur when the tendons associated with certain areas of the limbs (like the patella or the knee) are percussed with a reflex hammer; they are tested during a standard neurological exam

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10

carotid endarterectomy

surgical removal of fatty deposits in one or both carotid arteries (arteries that supply blood to the brain); commonly used to prevent a CVA

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11

cerebrospinal fluid shunt

surgically implanted device that drains cerebrospinal fluid from the brain ventricles to the abdomen or heart; commonly used to treat hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF in the ventricles)

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12

craniectomy

surgical removal of part of the skull to gain access to the brain; commonly used to treat swelling in the brain

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13

craniotomy

incision into the skull to gain access to the brain

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14

diskectomy

surgical removal of a herniated (protruding) vertebral disk

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15

laminectomy

surgical removal of the vertebral lamina, or part of the bone that makes up a vertebra in the spine, allowing access to the spinal cord; commonly used to treat a herniated disk

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16

nerve block

injection of a local or regional anesthetic or anesthesia to prevent pain in an area near a nerve (like Novocain or procain)

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17

neuroplasty

surgical repair of a nerve

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18

stereotactic radiosurgery

a form of radiation therapy in which a specially constructed frame is used to focus beams of radiation toward precise areas of the brain; used to treat inoperable tumors

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19

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

form of psychotherapy or mental health counseling wherein the goal is to help the client to gain an improved awareness of negative thought processes and to adopt strategies for counteracting negative thinking

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20

electroconvulsive therapy

electrical shock applied to the brain under medical supervision to trigger convulsions; shown to produce changes in brain chemistry that can benefit treatment of severe depression

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21

light therapy

use of a specialized light source, which replicates natural sunlight, to treat seasonal affective disorder

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22

psychotherapy

a form of treatment for psychiatric disorders that emphasizes verbal and nonverbal communication, in a one-on-one setting or in a group environment, to attain a desired response or action

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23

psychotropic drugs

drugs that produce changes in brain chemicals that affect mood and behavior

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24

antianxiety agent

medication used to reduce feelings of anxiety

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25

antidepressant

medication used to treat depression

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26

anxiolytic

antianxiety drug

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27

mood stabilizer

drug used to balance brain chemical that control emotional states and behaviors associated with certain mental disorders (like bipolar disorder)

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28

neuroleptic agent

medication used to treat psychotic disorders, mainly schizophrenia

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29

stimulant

drug that increases activity in the nervous system

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30

anticonvulsant

drug that prevents or relieves convulsions

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31

hypnotic

drug that causes sleep or loss of consciousness

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32

narcotic

drugs that, in moderate doses, depress the central nervous system, relieve pain, and induce sleep but when taken in excess, produce unconsciousness, stupor, coma, and possibly death.

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33

sedative

drug that produces a soothing or tranquilizing effect.

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