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1

Kinetic Particle Model (KPM) states

that all particles are constantly moving.

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2

Theoretically, at absolute zero

particles are not vibrating and have no energy.

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3

Absolute Zero (Zero Kelvin)

-273.15°C

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4

Thermal energy is

internal energy of an object due to kinetic energy.

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5

The more thermal energy means

The higher the temperature

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6

Temperature is

measurement of an average kinetic energy of an object system.

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7

Kinetic energy is

energy of movement, based on work required for an object to move between 2 points.

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8

Heat is

thermal energy that transfers from a 'hot body' to a 'cold body'

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9

Internal energy is

kinetic energy (K.E) + potential energy (P.E) = K.E & P.E

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10

Conduction is

heat is transferred through contact between particles. A higher vibrating gives energy to a lower vibrating particle.

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11

Convection is

bodies or currents of particle redistribute due to density. A fluids heat up they expand and get less dense.

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12

Radiation

heat energy is transferred as wave energy (electromagnetic waves). It may transfer through a vacuum.

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13

The addition of energy into a system (no phase change) invokes a

transformation to kinetic energy of particles.

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14

An increase in particle vibration (energy) means

an increase in temperature

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15

Phase change is

change of materials state, eg; solid liquid or gas.

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16

All vibrating particles

emit radiation

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17

If vibration increases, then

the radiation output initially increases, however it will vary.

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18

If energy absorbed is less than energy emitted then

potentially, heat loss has occurred.

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19

Energy removal/loss can occur through

conduction, convection, and radiation.

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20

Specific heat capacity is

the amount of energy required to heat 1kg of a material by 1°C.

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21

Direct proportionality is

Q ∝ m, where m=mass and Q= heat energy.

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22

Explain Q ∝ m

when m changes, Q changes in the same way.

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23

If something has a higher heat capacity then

more heat energy is needed

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24

Explain the process of phase changes

When matter changes state (solid, liquid, gas) molecular bonds are restructured. the bond restructuring requires energy for bonds and forces to form/breakdown/rearrange. While this occurs, additional energy does not affect the average kinetic energy, thus the heat energy, meaning there is no temperature change. The process of changing state/ phase change requires energy gain/ loss as the material/ medium has a change in P.E.

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25

Latent heat is

hidden energy, which is unique for every material/ medium. This is the required P.E during phase change.

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26

Calorimetry is

the process of measuring the amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.

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27

The Zeroth law states that

objects in thermal contact will eventually reach a thermal equilibrium.

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28

All forms of energy has

the ability to transform into another form of energy.

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29

Energy cannot be

created or destroyed

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30

During transformations,

particles undergo a change. At the micro level, bonds and vibration of particles change. At the macro levels object transform by possibly moving, rotating, rolling etc.

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31

Mechanical work is

energy used for the object to transform.

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32

first law of thermodynamics is

energy is always conserved, irrelevant of the transformation. Total energy remains constant. Law of conservation of energy is always obeyed.

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33

In mechanical systems energy is

'lost' to the environment as heat/sound/friction

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34

Efficiency is

how effective a system or action may execute the required operation

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35

Protons and neutrons are _____ times _______ than electrons

2000, heavier

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36

The four main forces are

gravitational force (gravity), electromagnetic force (ESF), strong nuclear force (SNF), weak nuclear force (WNF)

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37

Electromagnetic force is aka

electrostatic (ESF), electro repulsive, or coulomb force

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38

ESF causes protons to

repel

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39

ESF is a

non-contact force

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40

Proton - proton

proton on proton; a way of describing the interaction.

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41

proton-proton and electron-electron interactions are caused by

repulsive force

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42

proton-electron interactions are caused by

attractive force (ESF)

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43

The strongest force is

strong nuclear force

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44

The weakest force is

gravitational force

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45

SNF is

a contact force

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46

fm is a

femtometre, (a quadrillionth of a metre).

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47

SNF overcomes

ESF within 1.5 fm.

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48

SNF only occurs within

the nucleus

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49

When SNF acts within 1.5 fm

larger nuclides become less stable

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50

As protons increase

protons cannot touch each other which causes an imbalance in SNF and ESF, causing the isotope to be unstable.

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51

Neutrons balance out the

stability of nuclides, binding nucleons

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52

Serge plots are

plots of all stable and unstable isotopes.

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53

Serge plots show

0<Z<10, N\=Z, therefore its stable

Z\>10, N/Z increases, to ensure stability

Z\>10, N/Z increases, to ensure stability

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54

If the isotope doesn't have enough neutrons

positrons are emitted from protons, causing the proton to become a neutron

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55

Protons emitting B+ decay, it causes the segre plot to

move left or up

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56

Positrons are

positive leptons

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57

Leptons are

an elementary particle of half-integer spin that does not undergo strong interactions.

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58

As the number of protons increase, an atom becomes

heavier and the ESF increases

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59

When there are too many neutrons,

neutrons emit an excited electron, and becomes a proton

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60

an excited electron is

(e- decay or β- decay)

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61

too many neutrons means that

the nucleus needs to get rid of mass or energy

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62

When neutrons emitting e- decay or β- decay, it causes the segre plot to move

right and down

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63

Heavier isotopes require

more SNF and more neutrons than protons

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64

If N/Z is not a stable nuclide

natural radioactive decay (emission) may occur

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65

Decay includes

alpha decay, beta (+ or -) decay, gamma emission (U1-4) and other forms.

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66

Naturally occurring stable isotopes are

less likely to undergo radioactive decay

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67

Emission includes

energy emission for stability, and sometimes particle emission for stability

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68

A parent nuclide is

nuclide before decay

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69

A daughter nuclide is

nuclide after decay or emission

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70

Neutron emission is when

nucleus mass reduces, however the atomic number doesn't change

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71

Proton lost is when

nucleus mass and atomic number reduces, therefore the particle changes, eg, carbon to boron.

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72

Rounding in exams

the answer should have the same number of digits as the least accurate number in the operation.

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73

Percentage uncertainty is the same as

relative uncertainty

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74

Absolute uncertainty =

1/2 x (increment)

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75

Percentage uncertainty =

(abs unc/ measurement) x 100

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76

The steps for calculating uncertainty of a line with error bars are

calculate the (T=gradient (m) + y-intercept) of the l.o.b.f, minimum line and maximum line. Then calculate the absolute uncertainty of the gradient (Abs Unc Gradient (m) = (max gradient-min gradient)/2). The final equation is then, T = ((l.o.b.f m) ± m)t + ((l.o.b.f) ± Abs Unc of y-int)

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77

What does it mean to find the mathematical relationship

You must calculate the gradient with the formula T=kt, and explain the relationship using x ∝ y.

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78

Absolute Uncertainty formula

max-min/2

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79

Formula for an equation

T = kt, where k is the gradient and t is the y-intercept

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80

Words to describe graph trends

positive, negative, linear, constant rate of change

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81

Formula for absolute zero

0 Kelvin = -273°C

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82

Specific Heat capacity formula

Q = mc∆T

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83

Explain Q=mc∆T

Q = heat energy (if Q>0J, temp increases, if Q<0J, temp decreases) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat capacity (Jkg-10 C-1) ∆T = Tf-Ti (change in temp)

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84

Latent Heat formulas

Q = mLv and Q = mLf

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85

Explain Q=mLv and Q=mLf

Q = heat energy (joules) m = mass (kg) Lv = Latent heat of vaporization (Jkg-1) Lf = Latent heat of fusion (Jkg-1)

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86

Lv and Lf of a substance is

Lv the amount of energy per kg required to change a substance from/to liquid state to/from gas state. Lf is the same except from/to solid to/from liquid state.

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87

Formula for thermal equilibrium

Total energy of Q1 = Total energy of Q2 Q1T = Q2T

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88

To calculate thermal equilibrium, the formula is

∆Q1 = -∆Q2

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89

Formula to calculate the change in internal energy

∆u = Q±W

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90

Formula for efficiency

η = (energy output/energy input) x 100

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91

Symbols, mass and charge of alpha decay

The mass is 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and it has a +2 charge.

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92

Symbols, mass and charge of beta positive decay

The mass is 1 positron, and it has a +1 charge.

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93

Symbols, mass and charge of beta negative decay

The mass is 1 charged electron, and it has a -1 charge.

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94

Symbols, mass and charge of gamma emission

Gamma emission are waves, therefore there is no mass or charge.

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95

Ionisation ability meaning

the capability to remove electrons from atoms and molecules in the matter through which they pass.

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96

Ionisation ability for the decay

From highest to lowest it goes, alpha, beta +, beta -, gamma.

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97

Penetration ability meaning

the power (length) of an electron beam transmitted for a substance.

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98

Penetration ability for decay

from highest to lowest it goes, gamma, beta -, beta +, alpha.

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99

Against gold foil, alpha particles

are blocked/deflected

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100

Against gold foil, beta + and -

have minimal deflection

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