EEB384 Midterm

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Paraphyletic

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Tags and Description

81 Terms

1

Paraphyletic

not all crown group members included (e.g., birds excluded from reptiles)

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2

Polyphyletic

group derived from more than one MRCA (e.g., herps = amphibians and reptiles)

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3

Amphibian Traits

anamniotic egg, thin skin, metamorphosis

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4

Reptile Traits

amniotic egg, scaly skin

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5

Amniote

embryo protected by amniotic membranes that conduct active gas exchange and prevent dessication

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6

Caudata (salamanders/newts)

elongate trunk/tail, mostly 4 limbs, ancestrally biphasic

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7

Anura (frogs/toads)

short trunk no tail, 4 limbs, ancestrally biphasic

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8

Gymnophiona (caecilians)

elongate trunk short tail, limbless, reduced eyes, chemosensory tentacle, ancestrally biphasic

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9

Crocodylia (crocodylians)

elongate trunk/tail, 4 limbs, oviparous, exhibit parental care, aquatic or semiaquatic

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10

Testudines

shell, 4 limbs, oviparous, pelvic/pectoral girdle inside ribcage/skull, terrestrial aquatic or semiaquatic

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11

Rhynchocephalia (tuatara)

medium trunk/tail, oviparous, carnivorous, terrestrial or nocturnal

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12

Lizards (Squamata)

variable trunk/limb dimensions, 4 or 2 or 0 limbs, terrestrial arboreal or semiquatic, herbivorous to carnivorous

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13

Snakes (Squamata)

very elongate trunk, short or long tail, terrestrial/arboreal/fossorial/semiaquatic/aquatic, oviparous origins, strictly carnivorous

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14

Cryptic Species

taxa that are indistinguishable morphologically

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15

Tiktaalik

aquatic sarcopterygian fish with robust pelvic/pectoral girdles and a free neck

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16

Temnospondyl Hypothesis

lissamphibians lie within the temnospondyl amphibian clade

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17

Lepospondyl Hypothesis

lissamphibians lie within lepospondyl

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18

Diphyly Hypothesis

lissamphibians are polyphyletic - frogs/salamanders are temnospondyls, caecilians are lepospondyls

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19

Lissamphibia Synapomorphies

bicuspid + pedicellate teeth, operculum sound transmission apparatus, skin contains mucous and poison glands, retractor/levator muscles in eye can retract/elevate eye, short ribs don't encircle body

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20

Caecilian Synapomorphies

no limbs/appendicular girdle, annuli muscle rings, tentacle sensory organ, tail reduced/absent, internal fertilization via phallodeum

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21

Salamander Synapomorphies

costal grooves, larvae have bony skeletons, no tympanum/middle ear cavity

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22

Anura Synapomorphies

extremely reduced skull, fused frontals/parietals, backwards tongue, 9 or less sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae fused into single rod, radius/ulna fused, tibia/fibula fused, no teeth in mandible, distinctive larvae

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23

Synapsida

mammals + non mammalian synapsids

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24

Sauropsida

reptiles

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25

Amniote Clades

synapsida, sauropsida

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26

Diapsida

all living reptiles

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27

Living Reptile Groups

archosauria, lepidosauria, lepidosauromorpha

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28

Scales

folded areas of epidermis

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29

Osteoderm

bone slivers/plates found within dermis of crocodilians and some lizards

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30

Scutes

similar to scales, develop directly on underlying bone

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31

Reptile Characteristics

scale like feature, shedding, scale organs, ear structure, vision

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32

Columella

sound transmitting bone

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33

Scleral Ossicles

thin bone plates embedded in sclera of the eye

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34

Crocodylian Synapomorphies

thecodont teeth, webbed feet, robust osteoderms

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35

Turtle Synapomorphies

shell, lack of teeth, lack of temporal fenestrae

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36

Anapsid Hypothesis

turtles lie outside Diapsida, most closely related to extinct parareptiles

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37

Archosaur Hypothesis

turtles are sister to Archosauria

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38

Lepidosaur Hypothesis

turtles are sister to Lepidosauria

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39

Major Turtle Clades

pleurodires, cryptodires

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40

Plerodires

turtles that retract neck laterally

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41

Cryptodires

turtles that retract neck dorsoventrally

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42

Autotomy

ability to shed tail in defense, usually regenerated

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43

Lepidosaur Synapomorphies

epiphyseal long bone growth, skin shed all at once, autotomy, fused astragulus/calcaneum, hooked fifth metatarsal

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44

Rhynchocephalian Synapomorphies

intact temporal bar, tympanum absent, acrodont teeth with palatine tooth row, propalinal shearing, abdominal ribs - cover stomach

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45

Squamate Synapomorphies

movable quatrade bone, hemipenes, specialized tooth attachment modes (acrodont, pleurodont, and modified pleurodont)

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46

Major Squamate Clades

iguania, scleroglossa

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47

Snake Synapomorphies

>120 procloacal vertebrae, no scleral ossicles, loss of many skull elements, several lower jaw bones fused into single compound bone, loss of several hyoid elements, long/slender/curved teeth

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48

Sources of Water Uptake

liquid water, preformed water, metabolic water

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49

Cutaneous Water Exchange

water acquired through the skin (e.g., amphibians)

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50

Methods of Water Loss

evaporation, excretion

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51

Forms of Nitrogenous Waste

ammonia, urea, uric acid, salt glands

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52

Q10 Effect

rate of change in a biochemical reaction with a 10 C increase in temperature

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53

Thermoregulators

employ morphological, physiological, and behavioural mechanisms to maintain body temperatures that differ from environmental temperatures

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54

Set Point Temperature Range

preferred temperature range of an organism, determined experimentally

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55

Thermoconformer

organism that does not maintain body temperatures that differ from their environment

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56

Heliothermy

use of solar radiation for thermoregulation

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57

Thigothermy

conduction of heat from a substrate for thermoregulation

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58

Kleptothermy

gain heat from metabolic heat production of endotherms

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59

Physiological Thermoregulatory Mechanisms

colour change, circulatory transport, metabolic heat production

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60

Countercurrent Heat Exchange

coupled veins/arteries allow for heat to be lost to body instead of environment

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61

Newton's First Law of Motion

body at rest/in motion will remain so until a force acts upon it

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62

Newton's Second Law of Motion

force = mass*acceleration

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63

Newton's Third Law of Motion

every action has an equal and opposite reaction

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64

Centre of Gravity

the centre of mass of an object

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65

Base of Support

area enclosed by points of contact with the ground

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66

Reaction Force Components

vertical component, propulsive component

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67

Levers: First Class

fulcrum lies between in lever and out lever

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68

Levers: Second Class

fulcrum lies at one end of bar, in force applied at other end, force generated between both ends

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69

Levers: Third Class

fulcrum lies at one end of bar, in force is applied at both ends, out force generated at opposite end from fulcrum

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70

Sprawling Gait Locomotion

lateral undulations combined with alternating limb movements

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71

Semierect Gait Locomotion

limbs more vertical during locomotion

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72

Morphological Specializations for Jumping

long hindlimb elements, ankle independent of foot, pelvic girdle not fused to vertebral column

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73

Lateral Undulation Locomotion

body pushes posterolaterally, generating reaction with forward and lateral components

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74

Concertina Locomotion

anterior and posterior regions take turns anchoring the body while other parts move forward

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75

Sidewinding Locomotion

sections of body are continuously lifted, moved forwards, and set back down

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76

Rectilinear Locomotion

moving forward in a straight line

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77

Undulatory Swimming

undulation based propulsion

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78

Oscillatory Swimming

appendage based propulsion

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79

Morphological Specializations for Burrowing

smooth skin, reduced number of scales, thicker skull bones, reinforced skull sutures

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80

Wet Adhesion

capillary adhesion, relies on surface tension in a lubricating fluid to create an adhesive bond between organism and substrate

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81

Dry Adhesion

lamellae covered in setae bond to substrate via van der waals forces

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