4b: Crude oil

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what is crude oil

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33 Terms

1

what is crude oil

a mixture of different hydrocarbons of similar chain length called fractions

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2

how do the physical properties of hydrocarbons change as the molecule size increases

  • boiling point increases

  • liquid becomes less volatile, more viscous and darker

  • don’t burn as easily

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3

why do the physical properties of hydrocarbons change as the molecule size increases

  • increasing attraction between molecules

  • more energy needed to break intermolecular forces

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4

how are the fractions in crude oil separated

by fractional distillation

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5

does the number of carbon atoms in a chain affect properties and boiling points

yes

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6

what is the determining factor for fractional distillation

size and length of each hydrocarbon molecule

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7

what does the size of each hydrocarbon molecule depend on

number of carbon and hydrogen atoms the molecule contains

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8

fractional distillation

  • crude oil is heated and vapour is passed into a fractionating column

  • the vapour rises up depending on its boiling point

<ul><li><p>crude oil is heated and vapour is passed into a fractionating column</p></li><li><p>the vapour rises up depending on its boiling point</p></li></ul>
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9

positioning of crude oil in a fractionating column

cool at the top and hot at the bottom

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10

do smaller molecules have lower boiling points or higher

lower

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11

do larger molecules have lower boiling points or higher

higher

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12

what are the different heights that the different fractions condense at dependent on

their boiling points

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13

order of main fractions from coolest to hottest

  • refinery gas

  • gasoline

  • kerosene

  • diesel oil

  • fuel oil

  • bitumen

<ul><li><p>refinery gas</p></li><li><p>gasoline</p></li><li><p>kerosene</p></li><li><p>diesel oil</p></li><li><p>fuel oil</p></li><li><p>bitumen</p></li></ul>
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14

what is refinery gas

a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane

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15

uses of refinery gas

used for LPG for domestic heating and cooking

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16

uses of gasoline

fuel in cars

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17

uses of kerosene

fuel for jet aircrafts, domestic heating oil and paraffin

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18

uses of diesel

fuel for buses, lorries, cars, railway engines and conversion into petrol for cracking

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19

uses of fuel oil

fuel for ships and industrial heating

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20

uses of bitumen

melted and mixed with small pieces of rock to make the top surface of roads

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21

what is a fuel

a substance which when burnt releases heat energy

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22

fossil fuels

  • coal

  • oil

  • natural gas

  • oil shales

  • tar sands

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23

how are non-renewable fossil fuels obtained

from fractional distillation in crude oil

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24

combustion - products

  • carbon dioxide

  • carbon monoxide

  • oxides of nitrogen

  • oxides of sulfur

  • unburned hydrocarbons

  • carbon particulates

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25

complete combustion in hydrocarbon compounds

  • occurs in the presence of excess oxygen

  • a hydrocarbon burns in air to form carbon dioxide and water

  • it also releases heat

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26

incomplete combustion in hydrocarbon compounds

  • occurs in presence of insufficient oxygen

  • it releases soot, carbon monoxide and water

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27

carbon monoxide

toxic and odourless gas causing death

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28

what are the dangers of carbon monoxide

it reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen around the body by binding to haemoglobin

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29

how is carbon dioxide harmful for the environment

it’s a greenhouse gas which traps heat radiated from the earth’s surface

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30

what is formed when nitrogen and oxygen react in the high pressure and temperature conditions of internal combustion engines and blast furnaces

NO and NO2

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31
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32

acid rain

formed when water and oxygen in the atmosphere react with sulfur dioxide to product sulfuric acid, or various nitrogen oxides to give nitric acid

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33

how do fossil fuels contribute to acid rain

  • they contain a small amount of sulfur which is burned with the fuel and forms sulfur dioxide

  • this reacts in the atmosphere with oxygen and water and becomes sulfuric acid

  • nitrogen dioxide from car engine reacts with rain water to form nitrous and nitric acids

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