Light & Optics

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Light

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Physics

10th

90 Terms

1

Light

An electromagnetic wave that travels in straight lines; a form of energy

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2

Medium

Any physical substance through which energy can be transferred

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3

Radiation

A method of energy transfer that does not require a medium, the energy travels at the speed of light

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4

Electromagnetic Wave

a wave that has both electric and magnetic parts, does not require a medium, and travels at the speed of light

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5

Visible Light

Electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye

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6

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The classification of electromagnetic waves by energy

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7

Visible Spectrum

The continuous sequence of colours that make up white light

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8

Luminous

An object that emmits light

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9

Non-Luminous

An object that reflects light and does not produce it

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10

Incandescence

Light produced from heat

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11

Electrical Discharge

Producing light by passing an electric current through a gas

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12

Phosphorescence

An object absorbs UV light and emmits it slowly

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13

Flourescence

An object absorbs UV light and refelcts it immediately

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14

Chemiluminescence

The emission of light without heat from a chemical reaction

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15

Bioluminescence

The production of light by means of a chemical reaction in an organism

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16

Tribioluminescence

Producing light through scraping crystals together

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17

LED (Light-Emitting Diode)

Light produced when a current runs through a semi-conductor

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18

Laser

Emits a focused beam of one wavelength of light

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19

Reflection

The bouncing back of light when it hits a surface it cannot pass through

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20

First Law of Reflection

The angle of incident is equal to the angle of reflection

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21

Second Law of Reflection

The incident ray, the normal, and the reflected ray lie in the same plane

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22

Incident Ray

The ray that comes from an object and strikes a surface

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23

Reflected Ray

The ray that is reflected off of a surface

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24

Angle of Incidence

The angle between the incident ray and the normal (θi)

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25

Angle of Reflection

The angle between the reflected ray and the normal (θr)

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26

Plane Mirror

A mirror with a flat surface

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27

SALT of a Plane Mirror

Same, Upright, Behind Mirror, Virtual

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28

Concave Mirror

A mirror with a surface that curves inward

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29

Principle Axis

The line passing through the centre of curvature and the vertex

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30

Centre of Curvature

The centre of the sphere from which the mirror is made.

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31

Vertex

The point in the middle of a mirror where the principle axis meets the mirror

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32

Focus

The point at which parallel lines converge after reflecting off a concave mirror

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33

SALT for a Concave Mirror (Beyond C)

Smaller, Inverted, Between F & C, Real

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34

SALT for a Concave Mirror (Between C & F)

Bigger, Inverted, Beyond C, Real

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35

SALT for a Concave Mirror (At C)

Same Size, Inverted, At C, Real

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36

SALT for a Concave Mirror (At F)

No Image

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37

SALT for a Concave Mirror (In Fron of F)

Bigger, Upright, Behind Mirror, Virtual

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38

Incident ray parallel to the principle axis...

...reflects through the focus

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39

Incident ray passing through the focus...

...reflects parallel to the principle axis

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40

Incident ray passing through C...

...reflects back on itself

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41

Incident rays striking the vertex...

...reflect at an equal angle with the principle axis

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42

Convex Mirror

A mirror with a surface that curves outward

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43

SALT for a Convex Mirror

Smaller, Upright, In Front of F, Virtual

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44

Refraction

The bending or change in the speed and direction of light when in travels from one medium to another

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45

Refracted Ray

The ray that is bent as it enters a new medium

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46

Angle of Refraction

The angle between the refracted ray and the normal (θR)

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47

Light bends _____ the normal when it enters a denser medium

Towards

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48

Index of Refraction

The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a medium

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49

Light bends _____ the normal when it enters a less dense medium

Away from

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50

Total Internal Reflection (TIR)

When light reflects at the barrier between two mediums instead of refracting

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51

Critical Angle

The θi that results in the θR being exactly 90 degrees

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52

Conditions for TIR

The first medium has a higher index and the θi is larger than the critical angle

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53

Applications for TIR

Diamonds, fibre optic cables, prisms

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54

Retro-Reflectors

An optical device in which the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray

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55

Lens

A transparent object with at least one curved side, causing light to refract

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56

Converging Lens

A lens with a thick middle and thin edge, causes parallel rays to converge

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57

Diverging Lens

A lens with a thin middle and thick edge, causes parallel rays to diverge

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58

Secondary Focus

The focus on the opposite side of a lens’ image

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59

2F/2F’

The point double the distance of the focal length

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60

Converging lenses have _ F values

Positive

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61

Diverging lenses have _ F values

Negative

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62

Chromatic Aberration

Happens in thick lenses, different colours refract differently

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63

SALT for a Converging Lens (Beyond 2F')

Smaller, Inverted, Between 2F and F, Real

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64

SALT for a Converging Lens (At 2F')

Same Size, Inverted, At 2F, Real

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65

SALT for a Converging Lens (Between 2F' and F’)

Larger, Inverted, Beyond 2F, Real

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66

SALT for a Converging Lens (At F')

No Image

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67

SALT for a Converging Lens (In Front of F')

Larger, Upright, Same Side, Virtual

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68

SALT for a Diverging Lens

Smaller, Upright, Same Side/Closer to Lens, Virtual

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69

Camera

Uses a converging lens to create a real image on a sensor

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70

Focusing a Camera

Change the position of the lens to bring the image into focus

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71

Zoom on a Camera

Adjust lenses to change the focal point

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72

Movie Projector

Use a converging lens to magnify an image onto a big screen

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73

Magnifying Glass

An object within the focus of a converging lens forms a magnifyed virtual image

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74

Compound Microscope

Uses two converging lenses; objective lense creates a real image and the eyepiece lens creates a virtual image

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75

Refracting Telescope

Like a microscope but the object is distant

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76

Cornea

On the front of an eye; clear tissue that refracts light

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77

Iris

The coloured part of the eye

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78

Pupil

Where light enters the eye

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79

Lens (eye)

Inside the eye, refracts light onto the retina

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80

Cilliary Muscles

Open and close the iris to let more or less light into the eye

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81

Vitreous Humour

Fluid in the middle of the eyeball

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82

Aqueous Humour

Fluid in front of the lens

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83

Retina

The area on the back of an eyeball where the image is formed

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84

Optical Nerve

Takes the image to the brain

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85

Rods

Sense monochromatic light

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86

Cones

Sense coloured light

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87

Myopia

Light focuses in front of the retina

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88

Hyperopia

Light focuses behind the retina

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89

Presbyopia

Caused by age; the lens cannot accomidate for nearby objects

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90

Astygmatism

Incorrectly shped eyeball; only some light focuses

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