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1

Archimedes’ Principle

any object submerged in a fluid experience an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

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2

Bernoulli’s Principle

the pressure of a fluid decreases as its velocity increases

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3

buoyant force

upward force that keeps objects afloat

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4

pressure

the magnitude of force on a surface per unit area

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5

Pascal’s Principle

pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container

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6

laminar flow

every particle flows is in the same direction/along the same path.

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7

fluid

gas and liquid

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8

ideal fluid

A fluid that is incompressible and no internal resistance (viscosity) to flow

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9

turbulent flow

irregular flow of fluid

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10

density

A measure of how tightly packed molecules are in a substance

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11

pascal

SI for pressure

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12

Magnus effect

the effect a spinning object has on the speed of a fluid which curves the path of flight

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13

heat

energy transferred from one substance to another bassed on temperature differences

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14

specific heat capacity

the energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 celsius

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15

temperature

measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance

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16

thermal equilibrium

the state in which two bodies in physical contact with each other have same temperatures

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17

latent heat

heat required to change the state of a substance

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18

fusion

solid to liquid

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19

vaporization

liquid to gas

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20

calorimetry

the process of measuring the amount of heat released or aborbed in a system

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21

internal energy

energy of a substance due to kinetic energy of its molecules and potential energy that results from the arrangement of molecules

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22

conduction

heat transfer by direct contact with an object

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23

convection

heat transfer through fluid

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24

constructive interference

two waves combined by adding their displacement together

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25

destructive interference

occurs when waves come together so that they completely cancel each other out; same amplitude in opposite direction

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26

standing wave

a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere

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27

node

areas of wave interference where there is minimum amplitude; where destructive interference occurs

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28

antinode

where constructive interference occurs; max amplitude of standing wave

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29

Doppler affect

a frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the source of waves and an observer

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30

amplitude

max displacement from equilibrium

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31

simple harmonic motion

vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium

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32

period

the time it takes to complete one complete cycle (wavelength)

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33

frequency of wave

the number of cylcle of waves per unit of time

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34

rarefaction

a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are far apart

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35

transverse waves

a wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of motion

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36

crest of transverse waves

highest point above the equilibrium position

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37

trough of transverse waves

lowest point below the equilibrium position

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38

wavelength of waves

the distance between two adjacent similar points of a wave

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39

longitudinal waves

a wave whose particle vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling

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40

crest of longitudinal waves

compressed regions

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41

trough of longitudinal waves

stretched regions

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42

wave energy

depends on the amplitude

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43

sound waves are

longitudinal, mechanical waves

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44

compression

the region of a longitudinal wave in which density and high are at a max, crest

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45

wave speed depends on

medium

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46

higher density of medium

higher wave speed

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47

pitch

a measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave

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48

intensity

the rate at which energy flows through a unit are perpendicular to the direction of wave motion

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49

decibel

a dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound

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50

harmonic series

a series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and integral multiples of the fundamental frequency that are created along a standing wave

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51

standing wave

vibration of a system where some points remain fixed

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52

fundamental frequency/first harmonics

lowest and the most basic frequency of vibration of a standing wave

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53

Timbre

Quality of sound

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54

resonance

a phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of applied force matches the natural frequency which leads to a larger amplitude of vibration

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55

total internal reflection

a phenomenon where light is completely reflected when traveling from a denser medium to a less dense medium

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56

incandescence

light with heat involved

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57

chemical luminescence

light from chemical reactions

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58

transparent

when a material transmits all (or almost) incident light

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59

opaque

when a material does not transmit incident light

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60

translucent

when a material transmits some incident light

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61

concave mirror

converging, curving in

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62

convex mirror

diverging, curving out

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63

vertex

point priciple axis meets mirror

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64

polarized light

oscillations of light that lie on one single plane

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65

unpolarized light

electriomagnetic waves naturally oscillate with more than one orientation

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66

laser

polarized, coherent light

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67

light travels from faster (less dense) medium to slower (denser) medium

light refracts towards the normal

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68

light travels from slower (denser) medium to faster (less dense)

light refracts away from the medium

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69

convex lens: object between f and lens

virtual, right-side up, enlarged

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70

concave lens: always

virtual, upright, smaller, between object and lens

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71

static electricity

when charged particles build up in one place

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72

electric field

a region in which an electric charge can be detected

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73

circuit

a closed path in which electrons can flow

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74

series circuit

a circuit that has only one path for current flow

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75

parallel circuit

a circuit that has more than one path for current to flow

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76

electric current

the rate at which electric charge passes through a given area

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77

ampere

unit for electric current

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78

resistence

the opposition presented to the current by a material or device

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79

higher temperature, longer, smaller diameter

more resistance

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80

fluid dynamics

an area of applied science concerned with the movement of liquids and gases

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81

viscosity

a fluid’s resistance to flow or thickness of a fluid

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82

absolute zero

lowest possible temperature

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83

boiling point

the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor

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84

melting point

the temperature at which a material changes from a solid to a liquid

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85

medium

a physical environment through which a disturbance can travel

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86

wave

the motion of a disturbance

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87

beats

the periodic variation in the amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies

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88

focus

the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge

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89

center of curvature

center of curved mirror

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90

index of refraction

a measure of how much light bends as travels between mediums

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91

refraction

the bending of light as it travels from one medium to another

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92

battery

a device that converts chemical energy into electric energy

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93

Coulomb

the unit for electric charge

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94

ohm

the unit for electric resistance

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95

coherent light

light that has same wavelength, frequency, and phase

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96

Principle axis doted line perpendicular to lens or mirror

doted line perpendicular to lens or mirror

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