Physics Review Personal

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Distance

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Tags and Description

64 Terms

1

Distance

the total length of the path traveled by an object; a scalar quantity

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2

Displacement

the change in position of an object from its initial position to its final position; a vector quantity

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3

Scalar Quantities

physical quantities that have only magnitude and no direction

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4

Vector Quantities

physical quantities that have both magnitude and direction

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5

Position

the location of an object relative to a chosen reference point

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6

The difference between speed and velocity

speed is a scalar quantity that refers to how fast an object is moving, velocity is a vector quantity that refers to the rate at which an object changes its position

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7

Acceleration

the rate of change of velocity with respect to time; a vector quantity

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8

Uniform Acceleration

when an object's acceleration is constant over time

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9

Non-uniform Acceleration

when an object's acceleration changes over time

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10

Free Fall

a special case of uniform acceleration where an object is falling under the influence of gravity

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11

Uniform Circular Motion

the motion of an object moving in a circular path at a constant speed

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12

The difference between speed and velocity in uniform circular motion

although the speed may be constant, the velocity is not because the direction is always changing meaning that the velocity is always changing

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13

Centripetal Force

the force that acts on an object moving in a circular path, directed towards the center of the circle; keeps the object moving in a circular path; F=mv^2 / r

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14

Centripetal Acceleration

what turns the velocity vectors to keep the object traveling in a circle; ac= v^2 / r

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15

Gravitational Force

the force of attraction between two masses; F=G(m1m2) / r^2

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16

Gravitational Constant

6.674*10^-11 Nm^2 / kg^2

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17

Electric Force

the attractive or repulsive force between two charged objects

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18

Electric Force Formula

F=k(q1*q2) / r^2

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19

Coulomb Constant

9*10^9 Nm^2 / C^2

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20

Gravitational Acceleration

the acceleration experienced by an object due to the force of gravity

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21

Gravitational Acceleration Formula

g = GM / r^2

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22

Gravity on Earth

-9.81 m/s^2

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23

Work

the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied over a distance

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24

Work Formula

W=Fd; W=Fdcosθ

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25

Momentum

the degree of an object's opposition to a modification in motion; a vector quantity,

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26

Momentum Formula

p=mv

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27

Impulse

the change in momentum of an object over a given time period

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28

Impulse Formula

J=Ft

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29

Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum

the total momentum of a system of objects remains constant if no external forces act on the system

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30

3 Types of Collisions

elastic, inelastic and perfectly inelastic

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31

Elastic Collisions

the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved

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32

Inelastic Collisions

the total kinetic energy of the system is not conserved

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33

Perfectly Inelastic Collision

the objects stick together and travel in the same direction

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34

Simple Harmonic Motion

a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position and is directed towards it

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35

Relationship between Acceleration and Displacement in SHM

the acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement and is always directed towards the equilibrium position

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36

Total Mechanical Energy of a System Undergoing SHM

is constant and is the sum of kinetic and potential energy

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37

Potential Elastic Energy Formula

PEe=1/2 kx^2

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38

What force causes simple harmonic motion

Since the block is accelerating and decelerating, there must be some force that is making it do so. This cause, the spring exerts a force on the b

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39

Uniform Circular Motion

The motion of an object moving in a circular path at a constant speed. The velocity is constantly changing due to the change in direction of its motion.

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40

Centripetal Force

The force that acts on an object moving in a circular path, directed towards the center of the circle.

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41

Centripetal Acceleration

The acceleration that turns the velocity vectors to keep an object traveling in a circle

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42

Centripetal Acceleration Formula

a=v^2/r

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43

Centripetal Force Formula

F=mv^2 / r

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44

Newton's Second Law

F=ma

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45

Kinetic Energy

KE=(1/2)mv^2

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46

Potential Gravitational Energy

PEg=mgh

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47

Total Mechanical Energy Formula

E=KE+PE

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48

Conservation of Energy

Ei=Ef

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49

Power

P=W/t

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50

Conservation of Momentum

pi=pf

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51

Elastic Collision Formula

m1v1i+m2v2i=m1v1f+m2v2f

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52

Inelastic Collision Formula

m1v1i+m2v2i=(m1+m2)vf

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53

Torque

τ=rFsinθ

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54

Rotational Kinematics

θ=(1/2)αt^2+ωit

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55

Moment of Inertia

I = ∫r^2dm

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56

Coulomb's Law

F=k(q1q2)/r^2

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57

Electric Field Formula

E=F/q

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58

Electric Potential Energy Formula

U=k(q1q2)/r

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59

Capacitance Formula

C=Q/V

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60

Ohm's Law

V=IR

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61

Resistance Formula

R=ρl/A

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62

Kirchhoff's Laws

Σi=0 and ΣV=0

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63

Snell's Law

n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2

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64

Index of Refraction

n=c/v

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