Unit 2 Psychology Test

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left hemisphere

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65 Terms

1

left hemisphere

  • controls the right side of the body

  • responsible for language/logic

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2

right hemisphere

  • controls left side of body

  • deals with visual/spacial tasks

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3

cerebellum

balance

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4

medulla

breathing and heartbeat

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5

pons

helps coordinate movements and controls sleep

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6

reticular formation

relays important information from stimuli to other brain areas

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7

thalamus

receives information from all senses except smell --> reroutes them to different parts of the brain

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8

the limbic system

a system made up of several brain structures which are connected to each other, and which is located in the temporal zone of the brain (especially related to emotions)

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9

amygdala

fear and agression

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10

hippocampus

processes conscious memories

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11

hypothalamus

bodily maintenance - hunger, thirst, body temperature

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12

Cerebrum

the upper part of the brain, handling many different functions, including muscle movements, language, processing what senses pick up, etc.

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13

Cerebral Cortex

the outermost layer of the brain that is associated with our highest mental capabilities

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14

corpus collosum

ensures both sides of the brain can communicate and send signals to each other

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15

motor cortex

involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements

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16

sensory cortex

in charge of processing all the sensory information received throughout the day

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17

broca's area

responsible for speech production

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18

wernicke's area

responsible for comprehension of speech

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19

temporal lobe

recognition of speech, sound and visual information

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20

occipital lobe

participates in vision processing

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21

perietal lobe

involved with sensation of touch, information processing, and cognition

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22

frontal lobe

important for cognitive functions and control of voluntary movement or activity

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23

prefrontal cortex

plays a central role in cognitive control functions

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24

CAT scan

x-ray of brain structure

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25

PET scan

uses radioactive substance to examine glucose brain function (especially seizures and alzheimer disease)

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26

MRI

uses magnetic fields and radio waves to map structure (better resolution than CT/CAT)

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27

fMRI

maps structure and function (higher resolution than PET)

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28

EEG

measures brain waves

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29

MEG

looks at structure and function and takes a 3D image of the brain

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30

dendrites

receives messages from other cells

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31

cell body (soma)

the cell's life support center

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32

axon

passes message from cell body to other muscles/neurons/glands

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33

axon terminals

small fibers branching out from an axon

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34

resting potential

the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane (negative charge when resting)

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35

excitatory signals

depolarize the cell membrane, increasing the likelihood that the neuron will fire

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36

inhibitory signals

hyperpolarize the cell, decreasing the likelihood that the neuron will fire

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37

treshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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38

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon (changes charge from negative to positive)

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39

all or none law

neurons completely fire or they don't

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40

synaptic cleft

the narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell

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41

absolute refractory period

switching back of sodium and potassium to their original places

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42

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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43

reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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44

myelination

the process by which neurons develop a myelin sheath allowing them to communicate faster

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45

Endorphins

pain reducing

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46

acetylcholine (ACh)

learning, memory, and muscle movement (alzheimer disease)

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47

dopamine

reward/pleasure

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48

serotonin

mood, linked to depression

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49

norepinephrine

alertness and arousal

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50

GABA

calming, inhibitary (slows down brain activity)

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51

glutamate

linked to memory, excitatory (increases brain activity)

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52

central nervous system

formed from the brain and spinal cord and is the body's decision maker

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53

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the CNS

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54

blood brain barrier

blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out

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55

peripheral nervous system

responsible for gathering information and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts

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56

somatic nervous system

enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles

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57

autonomic nervous system

controls our glands and our internal organ muscles

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58

sympathetic division

arouses and expends energy

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59

parasympathetic division

conserves energy, promotes housekeeping functions during rest

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60

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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61

pituitary gland

"master gland" regulates bodily functions through the hormones that it produces

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62

thyroid

regulates metabolism

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63

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress

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64

gonads

sex glands

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65

pancreas

regulates the level of sugar in the blood

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