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US History

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Fascism is a far-right, authoritarian, ultranationalist political ideology and movement, characterized by a dictatorial leader, centralized autocracy, militarism, forcible suppression of opposition, belief in a natural social hierarchy, subordination of individual interests for the perceived good of the nation and race

"Cash and Carry"

Before passage of the Neutrality Act of 1939, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to allow the sale of military supplies to allies like France and Britain on a "cash-and-carry" basis: They had to pay cash for American-made supplies, and then transport the supplies on their own ships.

Lend-Lease Act

1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security ( given to GB, China and soviet union

Pearl Harbor

7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.

"final solution"

the Nazi policy of exterminating European Jews. Introduced by Heinrich Himmler and administered by Adolf Eichmann, the policy resulted in the murder of 6 million Jewish people in concentration camps between 1941 and 1945.

Eastern Front

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe, and Southeast Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

Western Front WW2

The Western Front, which ran across the industrial regions of France and Belgium, was one of the most important battlegrounds during the First World War. It is where great battles were fought and where more than 295,000 Australians served between March 1916 and November 1918

D-Day (June 6, 1944)

Allied forces launched the largest amphibious invasion in the history of warfare. Codenamed Operation 'Overlord', the Allied landings on the beaches of Normandy marked the start of a long and costly campaign to liberate north-west Europe from Nazi occupation.

"bracero program"

An executive order called the Mexican Farm Labor Program established the Bracero Program in 1942. This series of diplomatic accords between Mexico and the United States permitted millions of Mexican men to work legally in the United States on short-term labor contracts.

Double V Campaign

Black-Americans' campaign to earn victory in the home front (fight discrimination at home) and victory overseas (fighting the enemy Axis powers)

us women in ww2

While the most famous image of female patriotism during World War II is Rosie the Riveter, women were involved in other aspects of the war effort outside of factories. More than six million women took wartime jobs in factories, three million volunteered with the Red Cross, and over 200,000 served in the military.

GI Bill of Rights

Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business

Truman Doctrine (1947)

stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to resist internal left-wing (and therefore it was assumed "communist") movements and prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere. Early example of application of "containment" doctrine - that the US would take action to stop spread of communism. Some see this as beginning of Cold War.

Cold War (1945-1991)

  • a conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years

  • ideological war/war of ideas: capitalism (United States) vs. communism (Soviet Union)

  • waged by political and economic means

  • rivalry between the United States and the Soviets really began before the end of World War II outcomes- the fall of the Berlin Wall, the reunification of Germany and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Korean War (1950-1953)

began as a civil war between North and South Korea (which had been established by the USSR and US respectively), but the conflict soon became international when, under U.S. leadership, the United Nations joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea. The war left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. The Korean War was an example of the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia (Vietnam)

Christian Right

The Christian right, or the religious right, are Christian political factions characterized by their strong support of socially conservative and traditionalist policies. Christian conservatives seek to influence politics and public policy with their interpretation of the teachings of Christianity.

Evangelical Christians

a number of christians, often conservative supporters of the Rupublican party, who are concerned with such issues as family, religion, abortion, gay rights, and community morals

vietnam war

A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. The Vietnam War severely damaged the U.S. economy.

Watergate Scandal

A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.

President Gerald Ford

The only unelected VP and President (1974-77); chosen as VP after Spiro Agnew resigned; chosen because he wasn't very intelligent and easy to manipulate; pardoned Nixon for all crimes committed while President--creates American disillusionment with politics and political leaders; "I'm a ford not a lincoln."

Nelson Rockefeller

Nelson A. Rockefeller (1908-1979) was elected governor four times before being appointed vice president by Gerald R. Ford after Richard Nixon resigned. As governor, he expanded the State University of New York into the largest public education system in the world.

"Fair Employment Practices Commission"

Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), committee established by U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 to help prevent discrimination against African Americans in defense and government jobs.

President Carter's foreign policy

Carter's main foreign policy success was the Camp David Accords, which established a lasting peace between Egypt and Israel. Upon taking office, Jimmy Carter reoriented U.S. foreign policy towards a new emphasis on human rights, democratic values, nuclear non-proliferation, and global poverty.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979)

After the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979, President Carter placed an embargo on wheat shipments to Russia, increased spending on defense, and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.

Election of 1980: candidates, issues

Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. Reagan promised a restoration of the nation's military strength at a time when 60% of Americans polled felt defense spending was too low. Reagan also promised an end to "trust me government", and to restore economic health by implementing a supply-side economic policy.

Reagonomics (trickle-down economics)

The trickle-down theory states that tax breaks and benefits for corporations and the wealthy will trickle down to everyone else. Trickle-down economics involves less regulation and tax cuts for those in high-income tax brackets as well as corporations. the real GDP improved by 26% (above 1980 figures), from 13.5%, inflation was brought down to 4.1%, and unemployment dropped from 7.6% to 5.5%. rich got richer tho :(

President Reagan's foreign policy

The main goal of the US foreign policy during the presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) was winning the Cold War and the rollback of communism—which was achieved in the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe during 1989; in the German reunification in 1990; and in the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Economic inequality in the 21st century


GOP's "Contract with America"

was the Republican plan in the 1994 election, calling for welfare reform, congressional term limits, and a balanced-budget amendment. I

Domestic Terrorism

The actions by persons seeking to persuade or dissuade the government or people of their home country using violent means that intend to frighten or coerce, ranging from threats to outright acts of violence such as kidnapping, beatings, or murder.

Oklahoma City bombing

1995 *Timothy McVeigh destroyed the Oklahoma City Federal Building with a fertilizer bomb *168 people were killed in the destruction caused by the explosion *McVeigh said he was upset with the government about the Branch Davidian fiasco and the events at Ruby Ridge *McVeigh was executed by lethal injection in 2001

Operation Desert Storm

Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition. including British and US troops, attacked Iraq in the Gulf War.

Presidential elections, 2000.

-Vice President Al Gore was the Democratic candidate; Governor George W. Bush of Texas ran for the Republicans -Gore won the popular vote, but the results in Florida were disputed and a recount was ordered byt the Florida courts -In a 5 to 4 decision, the Supreme Court ordered a halt to the recount, giving Bush the victory

President George W. Bush

an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States (1989-93). He had previously served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981-89), a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence. Before 9/11, Bush had pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, a major education bill. He also pushed for socially conservative efforts, such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. DECLARED WAR ON TERRORISM

First Iraq War

gulf war (1990) - iraq under saddam hussein invaded kuwait, US had oil interests in kuwait - bush took action - Jan 1991 was the deadline for Saddam to get out of Kuwait but he didnt - goals for going into the war: freeing kuwaitis and preserving oil interests - coalition to stop saddam - operation desert storm

Second Iraq War

Military intelligence told Bush administration Iraq possessed WMDs. US invaded Iraq and captured and overthrew Saddam Hussien. He was tried and executed by his people. Long insurrgency caused over 3000 casualties and many more serious injuries and amputations caused by IEDs.

Occupy Movement

political movement aimed at limiting the influence of Wall Street and big corporations in American politics; created following government bailouts in 2008. credited with reintroducing a strong emphasis on income inequality into broad political discourse and, relatedly, for inspiring the fight for a $15 minimum wage.

President Obama

At age 49, he became the first African American President of the U.S. A graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, and president of the Harvard Law Review. Taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School. Served three terms in the Illinois Senate. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in his first term of presidency, and was re-elected for a second term in office. The ACA made it possible for more than 20 million individuals to afford health insurance and decreased the share of Americans without health insurance to an all-time low.

obama care

expanded Medicaid eligibility, created a Health Insurance Marketplace, and prevented insurance companies from denying coverage due to pre-existing conditions. The Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover a list of essential health benefits.

Presidential elections, 2008

Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama fought for the Democratic nomination; John McCain as the Republican; Obama ran a grass roots campaign that engaged young voters and the black community; the failing economy was the centerpiece of the election

Tea Party

The Tea Party is a political movement that largely began in 2009 with protests that were sponsored both locally and nationally. In general the movement is considered conservative, favoring decreased taxes & decreased spending by the government. The focus is on fiscal conservatism. So far the Tea Party has endorsed Republican candidates.

Senator Bernie Sanders

He is often seen as a leader of the democratic socialist movement in the United States. Sanders unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party nomination for president of the United States in 2016 and 2020, finishing in second place in both campaigns. Before his election to Congress, he was mayor of Burlington, Vermont.

Presidential elections, 2016

The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former secretary of state and First Lady of the United States Hillary Clinton and the United States senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, in what was considered one of the greatest upsets in American history.

President Trump's domestic policies

donald Trump's domestic priorities largely reflected the themes he campaigned on: restricting immigration, strengthening public infrastructure, reducing taxes, and repealing the Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare). His success in implementing that agenda was mixed.

Immigration 1970s

In 1970, the nation's foreign-born share fell to an all-time low of 4.7%. This occurred after four decades of foreign-born population loss—a result of restrictive immigration legislation in the 1920s, the Great Depression, and World War II.

us immigration 1980s

The Immigration Reform and Control Act made it unlawful for any employer to knowingly hire or recruit any individual unauthorized to work in the United States. It also made it illegal for an individual to use fraudulent entry or work documents.