APUSH Period 3

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Abigail Adams

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1

Abigail Adams

(1744-1818) At age 19, Abigail married John Adams. When John Adams became the 2nd president of the United Sates, this made Abigail Adams the 2nd first lady. We have learned about the fight for independence from her letters that she wrote to John Adams.

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2

Anti-Federalists

Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, they cast the document as antidemocratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government, and feared encroachment on individuals' liberties in the absence of a bill of rights. (173)

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3

Articles of Confederation

(1781) First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789. (163)

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4

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Decisive battle between the Miami confederacy and the U.S. Army. British forces refused to shelter the routed Indians, forcing the latter to attain a peace settlement with the United States. (191)

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5

Bill of Rights

(1791) Popular term for the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The amendments secure key rights for individuals and reserve to the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution. (182)

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6

Committees of Correspondence

(1772 and after) Local committees established across Massachusetts, and later in each of the thirteen colonies, to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets. (120)

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7

corridos

narrative ballads that feature heroes/social bandits, historical figures and events, and political issues; have rhyme scheme abcb

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8

Declaration of Independence

(July 4, 1776) Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide. (137)

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9

Democratic-Republicans

1790s, this party follows a strict interpretation of the constitution and favors a small government. They want the US to be a nation of small, independent farmers. Madison and Jefferson are a part of this and it was not a party developed formally when Washington was in office.

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10

Farewell Address (George Washington)

(1796) George Washington's address at the end of his presidency, warning against "permanent alliances" with other nations. Washington did not oppose all alliances, but believed that the young, fledgling nation should forge allegiances only on a temporary basis, in extraordinary circumstances. (193)

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11

Federalism

A constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and sub national governments, each of which enforces its own laws directly on its citizens and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other.

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12

Federalists

Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing arguing that the checks and balances in the new Constitution would safeguard the people's liberties. (173)

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13

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America. It resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland and helped spark the Seven Years' War in Europe. (104)

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14

French-American Alliance

Gave America source of desperately needed money, supplies & troops. Confronted Britain with an international war that challenged its domination of the Atlantic World. It was an unlikely alliance since France was a Catholic monarchy and America was Protestant federation of republicans. French foreign minister Conte Vergennes was determined to avenge loss of Canada to Britain. Was secretly loaning to the colonies and than established a formal alliance after the Battle of Saratoga. We used the French's rivalry with Britain to win them over. We agreed that neither side would sign a peace treaty without the "liberty, sovereignty & independence" of America

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15

French Revolution

(1789-1799) A period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.

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16

Hamilton's Financial Plan

Designed to pay off the U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.

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17

Intolerable Acts

(1774) Series of punitive measurements passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the Port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In response, colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods. (122)

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18

Iroquois Confederacy

(late 1500s) Bound together five tribes-the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas-in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York State. (36)

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19

Jay's Treaty

(1794) Negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in an effort to avoid war with Britain, the treaty included a British promise to evacuate outposts outposts on U.S. soil and pay damages for seized American vessels, in exchange for which Jay bound the United States to repay pre-Revolutionary War debts and to abide by Britain's restrictive trading policies toward France. (193)

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20

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

(1798-1799) Statements secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison for the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. Argued that states were the final arbiters of whether the federal government overstepped its boundaries and could therefore nullify, or refuse to accept, national legislation they deemed unconstitutional. (198)

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21

Loyalists

American colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the King; sometimes referred to as "Tories." (139)

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22

Mission System (Spanish System)

attempt by catholic church to incorporate indians into spanish colonial society --> teaching indians agricultural methods and catholic religion, providing inconsistent protection from exploitative spanish soldiers and settlers, expecting indians to serve as servants and laborers, and spreading european diseases to indian tribes

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23

natural rights philosophy (John Locke)

He argued that people have rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, that have a foundation independent of the laws of any particular society. Locke used the claim that men are naturally free and equal as part of the justification for understanding legitimate political government as the result of a social contract where people in the state of nature conditionally transfer some of their rights to the government in order to better ensure the stable, comfortable enjoyment of their lives, liberty, and property.

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24

Northwest Ordinance

(1787) Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories. (166)

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25

Paxton Boys

(1764) Armed march of Philadelphia Bay by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans. (80)

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26

Pinckney's Treaty

(1795) Signed with Spain which, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the disputed territory of Florida. (193)

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27

Pontiac's Rebellion

(1763) Bloody campaign waged by Ottawa chief Pontiac to drive the British out of Ohio Country. It was brutally crushed by British troops, who resorted to distributing blankets infected with smallpox as means to put down the rebellion. (109)

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28

Proclamation of Neutrality

A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.

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29

Proclamation of 1763

Decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac's uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians. Contributed to rising resentment of British rule in the American colonies. (111)

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30

Radical Whigs

Eighteenth-century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Their writings shaped American political thought and made colonists especially alert to encroachments on their rights. (113)

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31

Republicanism

Political theory of representative government, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with a strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue. Influential in eighteenth-century American political thought, it stood as an alternative to monarchical rule. (113)

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32

"republican motherhood"

Ideal of family organization and female behavior after the American Revolution that stressed the role of women in guiding family members toward republican virtue. (159)

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33

"rights of Englishmen"

Term prevalent in seventeenth-century England and America referring to certain historically established rights, beginning with the rights of the Magna Carta, that all English subjects were understood to have. These included the right not to be kept in prison without a trial, the right to trial by jury, security in one's home from unlawful entry, and no taxation without consent, among others

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34

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the cause of most problems. Rousseau believed that government should be run according to the will of the majority, which he called the General Will. He claimed that the General Will would always act in the best interest of the people.

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35

separation of powers

A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government executive, legislative, and judicial-to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. From this premise, adison developed his system of checks & balances setting power against power.

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36

Adam Smith

1723- 1790; Scottish; "Wealth of Nations"; first economist; "laissez-faire capitalism"; not completely against govt regulation; pro free trade; let individuals pursue own interest; attacks mercantilism- peep do thinks out of self interest (baker); prices should be fluctuated on just supply & demand- not what gov't say it is; philosophe; not hard-core conservative (gov't does have part); didn't trust businessmen; economics should have an economic (not military) end goal; skilled workforce and strong infrastructure determines power of country, (Scottish economist) in The Wealth of Nations, he created the concept of laissez-faire ( government should leave economy alone) & applied natural law to means of production & exchange (supply & demand); saw mercantilism as government interference in economy or free trade; believed that enlightened self-interest would create the best production & exchange for market conditions; government should only have 3 roles: protect society from invasion (army); defend citizens from injustice (police); & keep up public works (roads, canals, bridges) that private individuals could not afford to provide but that society needed

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37

Scots-Irish

A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.

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38

Shay's Rebellion

(1786) Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries. (167)

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39

Sons of Liberty

Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements. (117)

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40

Stamp Act

(1765) Widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed in 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of "no taxation without representation" that questioned Parliament's authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims. (116)

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41

tidewater (as distinguished from Piedmont)

Areas of low, flat plains near the seacoast of Virginia and North Carolina. The gentry controlled this area in Colonial America.

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42

vaqueros

Literally a Mexican cowboy, many of the cowboy traditions, clothing and equipment were adopted by US western cowboys.

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43

U.S. Constitution

The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.

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