Data Gathering

• Quantitative chemical experiments involve numbers

• the concentration of an acid in .345M

• Qualitative chemical experiments do not involve numbers

• Silver nitrate forms a white precipitate when added to a solution

• Observations and details of an experiment should be recorded in a notebook.

• contains complete experiment description, the equipment, chemicals used, and occasionally diagrams

Calculations

• Calculations can be done via dimensional analysis or memorized equations/laws

Accuracy and Precision

• Accuracy is the closeness between the measured value and true value

• Determinate errors can affect accuracy

• poor technique or incorrectly calibrated tools

• Precision is the closeness of repeated measurements to each other

• Indeterminate errors are a measure of precision

• errors in the last digit of measurement

• random errors that cannot be eliminated

Significant Figures

• Significant figures (sig figs) is the precision of a measure number

• Digits are significant if:

• digit is not a zero

• the zero is embedded

• trailing zero is in a number that has a decimal point

• digits are not significant if zeros are the left of all nonzero digits

• Exact numbers involve no uncertainty

• five plate at the dinner table

• 4.184 joules in each calorie

• How to obtain and write correct answers:

• number with the fewest sig figs in a multiplication or division problem determines the number of sig figs in the answer

• number with the fewest decimal places in addition or subtraction problems determines the number of decimal places in the answers

Uncertainty

• Two types of uncertainty: absolute and relative

• Absolute uncertainty is the uncertainty of the last digit of measurement.

• for 45.47mL, the last digit is uncertain and the it could be ±.01mL

• Relative uncertainty of a number is the absolute uncertaintly divided by the number itself

• (.01mL) / (45.47mL) = 2x10^-4

Rounding

• Steps of rounding:

• If the digit just after the kept digits is less than 5, the remaining digits are dropped

• rounding 6.23499 to three sig figs yield 6.23 because 4 is less than 5

• if the digit after the kept digit is 5 or more, the last kept digit is increased by one

• 34.25589 to three sig figs yields 34.3

• 8.445000 to three sig figs yields 8.45

Graphs

• Graphs illustrate the relationship between two variables

• X-axis is typically independent variable

• experimenter selects independent variable (IV)

• concentrations of standard solutions that a chemist prepares

• Y-axis is typically dependent variable

• dependent variable (DV) is a measured property of the IV.

• the amount of light that each standard solution absotbs

• constructing graphs:

• label x and y axis

• number the axes

• plot the data points and draw lines to connect dots

Determination of Physical Properties

• Parallax errors are caused by incorrect reading techniques

• Meniscus of liquid is caused by the surface tension, which causes the curvature

Determination of Mass by Weighing

• Weight = (gravitational constant)(mass)

• Samples collected on balances should be collected in appropriate containers, not directly on the balance.

Liquid Volume Measurement

• Accurate liquid measurements can be made with pipets or burets

• Glassware with “TD” or “to deliver” is pouring the the volume stated

• Glassware with “TC” to “to contain” will not pour the full amount in the container because a film, or excess solution, will remain

• Burets are controlled by a valve called the stockpot.

• should be rinsed with the solution, not distilled water, before filling

Temperature Measurement

• Thermometers are used for temperature measurement

• Mercury is used to measure temperature

Determination of Melting and Boiling Points

• Experiments determining boiling point must be done at 1 atmosphere of pressure for accuracy

• Closed-end capillary tubes can be used for melting point determination

Determination of Density

• Density = Mass / Volume

• density of liquid or solid = grams of material / cubic centimeters of material

• density of gasses = grams of gas / liters of gas

• pycnometers can be used to determine liquid density

Determination of Specific Heat

• a solid, typically metal, is heated to a certain temperature then submerged in water, where the temperature of the water is measured

• q = (mass)(specific heat)(ΔT)

Sample Manipulations

Heating

• Bumping is a violent burst of boiling that could splatter hot liquid

• typically occurs in test tubes

• occurs because burner flame superheats one portion of liquid

• hot water baths, steam baths, sand bath, and electrical heating can minimize bumping

• powders added to very hot liquids can cause bumping

Cooling

• Crushed ice bath and water is most effective to cool

• Ice is particularly efficient

• Heat-resistant lab glassware should be used because glass will shatter at rapid temperature change

Mixing

• Volumetric flasks should be used to prepare molar concentrations of specific volumes

• acid should be added to water

• if water is added to sulfuric acid, it will not mix because of the density, causing high heat and splattering/boiling

Dilution

• (Cinitial)(Vinitial) = (Cfinal)(Vfinal)

• where c is concentration

• v is volume

Gas Collection

• Pneumatic troughs can collect gas produced in a reaction

Separation Techniques

Precipitation

• For Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

• Barium solution should be added slowly with rapid stirring to precipitate sulfate ions as barium sulfate

• once precipitation is complete, the mixture should be heated to form the smaller crystals to larger ones for easy filtration

Filtration

• Filtration is used to separate solid particles from a liquid

• Folded, cone-shaped filter paper on a flask lets liquid pass through while solid is left behind

Centrifugation

• Small amounts of precipitate can be collected through centrifugation

• spins at high speeds to compact solid at the bottom

• Supernatant is the clear liquid remaining after centrifugation

Distillation

• Distillation separates two liquids with two different boiling points, one low and one high

Chromatography

• The stationary phase of chromatography has different attractive forces for different parts of the mobile phase

• Different attractive forces cause the mobile phase to move at different speeds

• Rf = (distance of color spot)/ (distance of water)

Instrumental Techniques

pH Determination

• pH meter or pH paper can determine pH

• Litmus paper simply determines if the solution is acidic or basic

Spectroscopy

• Spectrophotometer measures the amount of light that a colored solution absorbs

• Absorbance of a sample is the quantity determined by the spectrophotometer

• Reagent blank zeroes out the spectrophotometer to get an accurate reading

• Beer’s Law: Absorbance (A) = abc

• a is absorptivity

• b is optical path

• c is concentration

Experimental Reaction

Synthesis of Gasses

• By decomposing certain compounds, gasses can be collected

• KClO3 forms O2 when a catalyst is present

• Gasses that do not react with water can be collected via pneumatic trough

Synthesis of Insoluble Salts

• Precipitated in double-replacement reactions or reactions of gasses with soluble substance

• Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) → AgCl (s)

• Ba (aq) + SO4 (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

• Ni (aq) + SO2 (g) + H2O (l) → NiSO3 (s) + 2H (aq)

Preparation of Soluble Salts

• Can be separated by evaporation, with or without heat

• Pure salt sample can only be obtained if the solution only contains the ions of that salt

• Filtration can be used to separate unneeded ions

Qualitative Analysis of Inorganic Ions

• Qualitative analysis techniques determine if a sample contains a certain ion

• Sequence of reactions used to analyze a sample is called qualitative analysis scheme, or qual-scheme

• When a separation is by filtration, the liquid is called the filtrate.

• When separation is by centrifugation, the liquid is called the supernatant

Chemical Hazards

Highly Flammable Compounds

• Organic compounds, typically with low molar masses

• methane, butane, etc.

Explosive Compounds

• Ethers react to produce explosive peroxides over time

• Dry picric acid is explosive

• nitrogen triiodide and nitroglycerin are shock sensitive

Strong Oxidizers

• Perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide can cause immediate skin injury

• Perchloric acid with organic material causes spontaneous combustion

• White phosphorus burn spontaneously in air with hazardous fumes

Compounds Incompatible with Water

• Active metals may react explosively with water

• Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Ba, Sr

Compounds with High Heats of Solution

• Substances can emit large amounts of heat in water

• active metals, their solible oxides and hydroxides, and concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids

• calcium oxide and phosphorus pentoxide

• mixing concentrated bases with concentrated acids

Compounds with Possible Health Hazards

• Benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride

• Chlorinated organic compounds