Interpersonal Communication Exam 2

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Being other-oriented

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Chapters 4-7

141 Terms

1

Being other-oriented

Seek to understand what others actually think and feel

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2

Why learn about interpersonal comm and diversity

Helps us grow our awareness of cultural differences and similarities to be more respectful, and eliminate discrimination and stereotypes that cause people to prejudice others

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3

Culture

Learned system of knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms shared in a group

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4

Co-culture

Distinct culture within larger culture

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5

Enculturation

Learning culture you were born into

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6

Acculturation

Learning culture that you weren’t born into

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7

Group norms

Rules or guidelines that reflect expectations of how group members should act and interact

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8

High vs Low context

Cultures that rely on nonverbals and assumptions (high) vs using explicit, direct verbal codes (low)

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9

Individualism

Personal goals are valued more than the group’s goals

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10

Collectivism

Group goals are valued more than personal goals

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11

Power distance

Centralized structure (large distance) vs decentralized and equal distribution (small distance)

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12

Chronemics

cultural attitudes towards time

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13

Long-term orientation

Emphasis on the future; values perseverance

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14

Short-term orientation

Emphasis on present and past; values tradition

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15

Monochronic orientation

Time is highly valued

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16

Polychronic orientation

Time is fluid and relationship-based

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17

Uncertainty avoidance

Tolerance for uncertainty (low) vs avoid uncertainty (high)

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18

Feminine Culture

Value fluidity and emotional expression

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19

Masculine Culture

Value assertiveness, power, and control; traditional gender norms

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20

Universality

Absolute rules, beliefs, or notions of morality

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21

Cultural relativity

Belief that behavior can only be judged in a cultural context

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22

The Contact Hypothesis

Increased contact with people of different backgrounds increases their positive regard and decreases stereotyping

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23

Sex

Biologically based differences that determine whether one is male or female

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24

Gender

Socially learned and reinforced characteristics that include one’s biological sex and psychological characteristics

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25

Sexual orientation

Part of a person’s identity as it relates to who they are attracted to

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26

Gender identity

How a person identifies according to their gender

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27

Race

Group of people with a common cultural history, nationality, or geographical location, as well as genetically transmitted physical attributes

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28

Ethnicity

Social classification based on nationality, religion, language, and ancestral heritage, shared by a group of people who also share a common geographical origin

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29

Age and generational differences

Various generations tend to view life differently because of the cultural and historical events they have experienced in their lives

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30

Social class

Perception of a person’s perceived status influence, authority, and power, based on economic, educational, and family history

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31

Intercultural communication

Communication between or among people who have different cultural traditions

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32

Culture shock

Feelings of stress and anxiety a person experiences when encountering a culture different from his or her own

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33

Ethnocentrism

Belief that your cultural traditions and assumptions are superior to those of others

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34

Stereotypes

To place a person or group of persons into an inflexible, all-encompassing category

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35

Assuming similarities

Focusing on superficial factors such as appearance, clothing, or other categories can lead to false impressions because of a self-focused perspective instead of an other-oriented one

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36

Assuming differences

Communication effectiveness is diminished when we assume we’re all different from one another in every aspect

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37

Third culture

Common group established when people from separate cultures create a third, “new” more comprehensive and inclusive culture

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38

Social decentering

Consciously thinking about another’s thoughts and feelings

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39

Empathy

Responding emotionally to another’s feelings

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40

Communication accommodation theory

Theory that all people adapt their behaviors to others to some extent

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41

Hearing

Physiological process of decoding sounds

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42

Listening

Process of selecting, attending to, creating meaning from, remembering, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages

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43

Selecting

Process of choosing one sound while sorting through various sounds competing for your attention

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44

Attending

Process of focusing on a particular sound or messages

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45

Understanding

Process of assigning meaning to sounds

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46

Remembering

Process of recalling information

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47

Responding

Process of confirming your understanding of a message

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48

Relational listening style

Those who prefer to focus on the emotions and feelings communicated verbally and nonverbally by others

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49

Analytical listening style

Those who withhold judgment, listen to all sides of an issue, and wait until they hear the facts before reaching a conclusion

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50

Critical listening style

Those who prefer to listen for the facts and evidence to support key ideas and an underlying logic; they also listen for errors, inconsistencies, and discrepancies

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51

Task-oriented listening style

Those who look at the overall structure of the message just to see what action needs to be taken; they also like efficient, clear, and brief messages

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52

Benefits of understanding your listening style

You can better adapt to how you listen to others, determine if you have multiple preferred listening styles, adapt style to achieve your listening goal, better understand cultural and gender influences, and adapt what you say to others

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53

Barriers to listening

Being self-absorbed, unchecked emotions, criticizing speaker, speech rate differs from thought rate, information overload, and external noise

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54

Ambush listener

Person who is overly critical and judgmental when listening to others

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55

Listener apprehension

Fear of misunderstanding, misinterpreting, or being unable to adjust to the spoken messages of others

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56

Conversational narcissism

People who are only focused on their own agenda

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57

Selective listening

Listening for what we want to hear

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58

Becoming a better informational listener

Stop (remain in the present), look at the person, listen without interrupting, determine listening goal, transform barriers into goals, summarize major ideas, actively listen

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59

Confirmation bias

Tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs or theories

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60

Becoming a better critical listener

Assess information quality, appropriateness, value, importance, and separate facts from inferences

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61

Possible

Something can/could have happened

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62

Probable

Something likely happened

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63

Certain

Something definitely happened (with facts)

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64

Become a better empathic listener

Empathize and socially decenter

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65

Sympathy

Acknowledgment of someone else’s feelings

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66

Social support

Encompasses verbal and nonverbal assistance, comfort, or advice we give to others or seek and receive during difficult times

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67

Informational support

Give advice or information

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68

Instrumental support

Tangible aid (help with physical tasks)

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69

Appraisal support

Help with reframing a situation

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70

Esteem support

Build their self-esteem

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71

Emotional support

Express care and concern

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72

Network support

Connect person to someone or something else that can help

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73

Enacted support

Support we actually receive

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74

Perceived support

Support we think we can get if we need it

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75

Solution messages

Communication that helps resolve or de-escalate a situation

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76

Confirmation skills

Skills that effectively and appropriately confirm others and their feelings

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77

Confirming response

Statement that causes another person to value himself or herself more

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78

Disconfirming response

Statement that causes another person to value himself or herself less

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79

Direct acknowledgement

Responding directly to something another person says to you to acknowledge that the person is worth responding to

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80

Agreement about judgements

Confirm someone’s evaluation of something to affirm their sense of taste and judgment

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81

Supportive response

Expressing reassurance and understanding to confirm a person’s right to their feelings

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82

Words are symbols

Words that represent something else, such as a thought, concept or object

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83

Referents

The thing that a symbol represents

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84

High-shared meaning

The meaning for a word is sometimes shared between you and another person

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85

Low-shared meaning

No shared meaning; meanings sometimes get completely misunderstood

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86

Denotative meaning

Restrictive or literal definition of a word

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87

Connotative meaning

Personal and subjective association with a word

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88

Words are concrete

If you can see, touch, smell, taste, or hear a word’s referent

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89

Words are abstract

Referents that you cannot use the five senses with

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90

Ladder of abstraction

Continuum from concrete words to abstract words

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91

Words are arbitrary and culture-bound

Meaning of symbols or words can change from culture to culture, and the meaning of words are shaped by our experiences

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92

Symbolic interaction theory

Theory that people make sense of the world based on their interpretation of words or symbols used by others

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93

Words create perceptions

Words give you a tool to create how you perceive both yourself and the world by naming and labeling experiences

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94

Words influence thoughts

Words transmit our dreams and emotions to others when we verbalize what we feel; words symbolize meaning, but precise meaning originate in the minds of both people, changing as they experience new things

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95

Euphemism

An expression that describes something people prefer not to directly talk about in less explicit language

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96

Words influence actions

Thoughts, which are influenced by words, affect how you behave

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97

Words affect and reflect culture

The words you use to describe your view of the world reflect and shape your future perspectives, shaping your culture

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98

Sapir-whorf hypothesis

Language shapes our thoughts and culture, and our culture and thoughts affect the language we use to describe our world

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99

Words make and break relationships

What you say and how you say it have a strong impact on how you relate to others

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100

Managing misunderstandings

Be aware of missed meaning, changes in meaning, polarizing either-or extremes, and be clear, specific, and unbiased

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