Human Anatomy Final Review

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Anatomy

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118 Terms
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Anatomy

the study of the structure of the body

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Physiology

The study of body function

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Homeostasis

Tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements

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Positive feedback loop

Mechanisms by which a deviation in a variable form its set point moves conditions farther away from the normal state

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Positive feedback example

Blood clotting and childbirth

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Negative feedback loop

Mechanisms by which a deviation in a variable from its set point is corrected

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Negative feedback example

Homeostatic mechanisms

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Level of organization (simple to most complex)

Chemicals—> organelles—> cells—> tissues—> organs—> organ systems—> organisms

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Saggital plane

Longitudinal section that divides the body into right and left portions

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Transverse (horizontal) plane

Section that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

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Frontal (coronal) plane

Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

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Anatomical position

Body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palms forward

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Cardiovascular system

Distributes oxygen and nutrients into the body cells, and transports waste away from them

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Nervous system

Transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs

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endocrine system

Releases hormones into the bloodstream and regulates the release of hormones

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proximal

Closer to the point of attachment or another referenced body part

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Distal

Further from the point of attachment to trunk or another referenced body part

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Medial

Closer to the midline of the body

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Lateral

Toward the side, away from the midline

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Superficial

Near the surface, outward

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Deep

More internal

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Abduction

Moving away from the midline of the body

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Adduction

Moving toward the midline of the body

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Flexion

Decreasing the angle between two body parts

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Extension

Increasing the angle between two body parts

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Cranial cavity contains the ___

Brain

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Vertebral cavity contains the ___

Spinal cord

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Thoracic cavity contains the ___

Heart, lungs, mediastinum

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Abdominal cavity contains the __

Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most of intestines

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Pelvic cavity contains the __

End of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

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Synthesis reaction

When two or more reactants combine to form a more complex substance

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Exchange reaction

Cations and anions that were partners in the reactants are interchanged in the products

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Decomposition reaction

A more complex substance is broken down into two or more smaller substances

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Hydrolysis reaction

One molecule breaks apart to form multiple smaller molecules

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What is waters main function for the body

Regulate body temperature

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What are enzymes

Type of protein in the body

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What is the main function of enzymes

Act as a catalyst to bring about specific biochemical reactions

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Acids

Any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance

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Base

Molecule or ion able to accept a hydrogen ion from an acid

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Buffer

Solution that can resist pH change upon the addition of an acidic or basic components

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Carbohydrates function

Provide energy

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Lipid function

Fats used to store energy and insulate cells

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Protein function

Build and repair cells

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Nucleic acid function

Store and transmit genetic material

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How is ATP used

Consumed for energy for ion transporting of different molecules across cell membranes

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Is ATP required for osmosis?

No

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Is ATP required for diffusion?

No

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Is ATP required for facilitated diffusion?

Yes

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What cell structure is most in charge on maintaining homeostasis?

Cell membrane

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Function of the mitochondria in a cell

Generating ATP by utilizing energy in the body

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Active transport

Process of moving molecules across a cellular membrane through the use of cellular energy

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Nerve cell function

Receive and send messages from the cell body to the brain and back to the body

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Tissue

Group of cells that have similar structure and function together as a unit

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Four main types of tissue

connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous

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Functions of the skin

Protection, vitamin D production, temperature regulation, and healing of wounds

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A in the ABCD rule

Asymmetry: when one half does not match the other half

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B in the ABCD rule

Border: when edges are irregular

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C in the ABCD rule

Color: when the color varies throughout

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D in the ABCD rule

Diameter: bigger than a pencils eraser

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Four types of body membranes

mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial

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3 epithelial membranes

cutaneous, mucous, serous

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Connective membrane

synovial

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Serous membrane

Lines cavities that do not open to the outside

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Mucous membrane

Line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body

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Cutaneous membrane

The skin

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Synovial membrane

Lines joints and are composed entirely of connective tissue

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Epidermis

Outermost layer of skin

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Dermis

Inner layer of skin

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subcutaneous

under the skin

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Functions of the skeletal system

Provide shape, protect, storage, blood cell production, and allows movement

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Axial skeleton

skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage

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appendicular skeleton

pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs

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Ossification

Natural process of bone formation

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Factors that affect bone growth

Nutrition, hormonal secretions, and physical exercise

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Function of cartilage in the joints

Provide a smooth, lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the transmission of loads with a low frictional coefficient

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Growth plate function

The bones growth in length

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Osteoporosis

Body constantly absorbs bone and cannot keep up with the bone replacement

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Osteomalacia

Softening of the bones

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Scoliosis

sideways curvature of the spine

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Arthritis

painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.

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What movement does a ball and socket joint allow

Widest range of motion, movement in all planes (multidirectional)

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Muscular system function

Movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production

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Cause of soreness after excersise

Oxygen is used to produce ATP for muscle contraction rather than the lactic acid conversion back to glucose

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What does ATP stand for

adenosine triphosphate

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