Human Anatomy Final Review

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Anatomy

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118 Terms

1

Anatomy

the study of the structure of the body

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Physiology

The study of body function

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3

Homeostasis

Tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements

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4

Positive feedback loop

Mechanisms by which a deviation in a variable form its set point moves conditions farther away from the normal state

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Positive feedback example

Blood clotting and childbirth

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Negative feedback loop

Mechanisms by which a deviation in a variable from its set point is corrected

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Negative feedback example

Homeostatic mechanisms

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Level of organization (simple to most complex)

Chemicals—> organelles—> cells—> tissues—> organs—> organ systems—> organisms

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9

Saggital plane

Longitudinal section that divides the body into right and left portions

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10

Transverse (horizontal) plane

Section that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

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Frontal (coronal) plane

Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

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12

Anatomical position

Body erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides with palms forward

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13

Cardiovascular system

Distributes oxygen and nutrients into the body cells, and transports waste away from them

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Nervous system

Transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs

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15

endocrine system

Releases hormones into the bloodstream and regulates the release of hormones

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16

proximal

Closer to the point of attachment or another referenced body part

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17

Distal

Further from the point of attachment to trunk or another referenced body part

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Medial

Closer to the midline of the body

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19

Lateral

Toward the side, away from the midline

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20

Superficial

Near the surface, outward

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21

Deep

More internal

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22

Abduction

Moving away from the midline of the body

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23

Adduction

Moving toward the midline of the body

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24

Flexion

Decreasing the angle between two body parts

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25

Extension

Increasing the angle between two body parts

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26

Cranial cavity contains the ___

Brain

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27

Vertebral cavity contains the ___

Spinal cord

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28

Thoracic cavity contains the ___

Heart, lungs, mediastinum

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29

Abdominal cavity contains the __

Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most of intestines

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30

Pelvic cavity contains the __

End of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

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31

Synthesis reaction

When two or more reactants combine to form a more complex substance

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32

Exchange reaction

Cations and anions that were partners in the reactants are interchanged in the products

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33

Decomposition reaction

A more complex substance is broken down into two or more smaller substances

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34

Hydrolysis reaction

One molecule breaks apart to form multiple smaller molecules

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35

What is waters main function for the body

Regulate body temperature

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36

What are enzymes

Type of protein in the body

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37

What is the main function of enzymes

Act as a catalyst to bring about specific biochemical reactions

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38

Acids

Any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance

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39

Base

Molecule or ion able to accept a hydrogen ion from an acid

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40

Buffer

Solution that can resist pH change upon the addition of an acidic or basic components

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41

Carbohydrates function

Provide energy

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42

Lipid function

Fats used to store energy and insulate cells

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43

Protein function

Build and repair cells

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Nucleic acid function

Store and transmit genetic material

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How is ATP used

Consumed for energy for ion transporting of different molecules across cell membranes

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Is ATP required for osmosis?

No

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47

Is ATP required for diffusion?

No

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48

Is ATP required for facilitated diffusion?

Yes

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49

What cell structure is most in charge on maintaining homeostasis?

Cell membrane

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50

Function of the mitochondria in a cell

Generating ATP by utilizing energy in the body

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Active transport

Process of moving molecules across a cellular membrane through the use of cellular energy

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52

Nerve cell function

Receive and send messages from the cell body to the brain and back to the body

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Tissue

Group of cells that have similar structure and function together as a unit

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54

Four main types of tissue

connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous

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55

Functions of the skin

Protection, vitamin D production, temperature regulation, and healing of wounds

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56

A in the ABCD rule

Asymmetry: when one half does not match the other half

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B in the ABCD rule

Border: when edges are irregular

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C in the ABCD rule

Color: when the color varies throughout

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D in the ABCD rule

Diameter: bigger than a pencils eraser

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Four types of body membranes

mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial

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3 epithelial membranes

cutaneous, mucous, serous

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Connective membrane

synovial

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Serous membrane

Lines cavities that do not open to the outside

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Mucous membrane

Line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body

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Cutaneous membrane

The skin

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Synovial membrane

Lines joints and are composed entirely of connective tissue

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Epidermis

Outermost layer of skin

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Dermis

Inner layer of skin

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subcutaneous

under the skin

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70

Functions of the skeletal system

Provide shape, protect, storage, blood cell production, and allows movement

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Axial skeleton

skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage

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appendicular skeleton

pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs

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Ossification

Natural process of bone formation

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74

Factors that affect bone growth

Nutrition, hormonal secretions, and physical exercise

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Function of cartilage in the joints

Provide a smooth, lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the transmission of loads with a low frictional coefficient

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Growth plate function

The bones growth in length

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Osteoporosis

Body constantly absorbs bone and cannot keep up with the bone replacement

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Osteomalacia

Softening of the bones

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79

Scoliosis

sideways curvature of the spine

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80

Arthritis

painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.

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81

What movement does a ball and socket joint allow

Widest range of motion, movement in all planes (multidirectional)

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82

Muscular system function

Movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production

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Cause of soreness after excersise

Oxygen is used to produce ATP for muscle contraction rather than the lactic acid conversion back to glucose

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84

What does ATP stand for

adenosine triphosphate

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85

Where does the energy for muscle activity come from

ATP

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86

Muscle atrophy

Decrease is muscle size and strength due to disuse

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Origin

Less moveable end of a skeletal muscle

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Insertion

More moveable end of a skeletal muscle

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Motor unit components

Anterior horn cell, axon, myelin, neuromuscular junction, and muscle fibers

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90

voluntary or involuntary: cardiac muscle

involuntary

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voluntary or involuntary: smooth muscle

involuntary

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voluntary or involuntary: skeletal muscle

voluntary

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93

path of food through the body

mouth—> pharynx—> esophagus—> stomach—>SI—> LI—> rectum—> anus

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Saliva function

Moistened and dissolves food particles

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95

Large intestine function

Reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food

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96

Pancreas function

Produces and secrete pancreatic juice

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Liver function

Produces bile

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98

Functions of the urinary system

filters salt and wastes from the blood, helps maintain normal concentrations of electrolytes and water, regulates pH and body fluid volume, and helps control red blood cell production and blood pressur

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normal components of urine

Urea, uric acid, and creatine

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100

Gastro-

Stomach

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